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Lyssa
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PostSubject: Food and Culture Mon Mar 19, 2012 9:56 am

Daoist Diet, Bigu, abstention from grains, abstention from cereals, Three Worms and grains, abstaining from grains, energized fasting

Yoked to Earth: A Treatise on Corpse-Demons and Bigu or “abstention from grains” †

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*


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PostSubject: Punk Cuisine Mon Apr 09, 2012 6:54 pm

The Raw and the Rotten (an anarcho-leftist persp.):

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*


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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Wed May 23, 2012 7:28 pm

Oh, Lyssa.. what perception of taste for reality you have.

Would you mind preparing interesting cuisine from this dumpster of a society, with adept hands?

Maybe even nurse my reoccurant wounds, incurred in the provision of better fare than foodstuffs from dumpsters?

Hah! Carry on, sugartits. There will be a hayabusa waiting, I assure..
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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Sun Jan 06, 2013 11:45 am

Fortune favours the Brave.

The trick is in the salt - for the food as well for wounds.

Salting is an art of knowing how much pressure to exert.

The effect incites all other elements to come together on their own.

Its all about the right kind of touch.





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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*
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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Wed Jan 09, 2013 2:02 pm

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Vegetarianism Fri Jan 18, 2013 4:27 pm

Is anyone else here vegetarian or partially? I was vegetarian for most of my life...then I recently became pescetarian because of hypoglycemia issues, plus, I've got type "O" (Hunter) blood so maybe I'm meant to eat meat.
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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Fri Jan 18, 2013 9:18 pm

I am pure veg.; no egg, mushrooms, onion, garlic.

What made you choose vegetarianism?

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*


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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Fri Jan 18, 2013 10:12 pm

Lyssa wrote:
I am pure veg.; no egg, mushrooms, onion, garlic.

What made you choose vegetarianism?

I find that becoming vegetarian, or even partially, take a lot of willpower in this day and age of fast food and junk.  

I chose vegetarianism for ethical reasons.  I love animals.  But of course, I now must choose between dying of hypoglycemia, or increasing my intake of protein (non-soy).  

I was a vegetarian for more than twenty years.  If it weren't for my condition, I'd be vegan as well.
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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Thu Jan 24, 2013 10:30 pm

Eat meat. I found that people who are vegetarian or especially vegan for a long period of time get sickly. Vegans develop dark circles under their eyes, get paler, and wrinkle early.

Meat has CoQ10 and is an excellent source of vitamins.
Just don't eat the processed, Mcdonalds quality stuff. Buy from local farms that don't drug their cows.
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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Fri Jan 25, 2013 8:23 am

Vegan or meat, poor iron-intake and poor sleep will leave you with dark-circles. B12 and lucid dreaming with dates under a palm tree...

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*
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PostSubject: Judaism and the Abominable Pig Sat Jan 26, 2013 6:29 am

Quote :
"Food is central to our sense of identity. The way any given human group eats helps it assert its diversity, hierarchy and organization, and at the same time, both its oneness and the otherness of whoever eats differently. Food is also central to individual identity, in that any given human individual is constructed, biologically, psychologically and socially by the food he/she choses [sic] to incorporate." [Claude Fischler, Food, Self and Identity]

"The “abominable pig” offers a unique datum with regard to Jewish food regulations and practice in antiquity. Perhaps no other culinary item has received more attention from antiquity through modernity. In particular, modern anthropologists have fixated on this split-hoofed nonruminant in an attempt to understand the origin of biblical food prohibitions.

Modern scholars, however, are not the first to attempt a logical expla- nation for this food taboo. For example, Philo offers (in typical fashion) an allegorical interpretation of the underlying principles behind this biblical proscription in general:

[Moses] adds a general method for proving and testing the ten kinds [of pure domesticated quadrupeds], based on two signs, the parted hoof and the chewing of the cud. Any kind which lacks both or one of these is unclean [Leviticus 11:3; Deuteronomy 14:6–8]. Now both these two are symbols to teacher and learner of the method best suited for acquiring knowledge, the method by which the better is distinguished from the worse, and thus confusion is avoided. For just as a cud-chewing animal after biting through the food keeps it at rest in the gullet, again after a bit draws it up and masticates it and then passes it on to the belly, so the pupil after receiving from the teacher through his ears the principles and lore of wisdom prolongs the process of learning, as he cannot at once apprehend and grasp them securely, till by using memory to call up each thing that he has heard by constant exercises which act as the cement of conceptions, he stamps a firm impression of them on his soul. But the firm apprehension of conceptions is clearly useless unless we discriminate and distinguish them so that we can choose what we should choose and avoid the contrary, and this distinguishing is symbolized by the parted hoof. For the way of life is twofold, one branch leading to vice, the other to virtue and we must turn away from the one and never forsake the other.

According to Philo, the pig (and other similar animals) lacks the physio- logical apparatus to ruminate – literally and figuratively. For him, there- fore, Mosaic law ensures that “rational” man eats only animals whose own eating process is itself a symbol of “proper” reasoning. Philo is not alone in this interpretation, as the Letter of Aristeas offers a sim- ilar interpretation about the connection between the rumination that occurs in an animal’s cud and the rumination that occurs in the mind of the person who ingests that animal. As Martin S. Jaffee notes, “The point, one supposes, is that you are what you eat.

Consumption of hoof- parting cud-chewers encourages the ability to distinguish between right and wrong, just as it will enhance the memory, the central faculty in the mastery of wisdom." The biblical food taboos are therefore understood to serve as reminder to Jews not only about how to eat, but also about how to think.

Judean/Jewish and Gentile sources equate the ingestion of, or abstention from, pork as indicative of one’s identity.
One finds the connection between ingesting pork and ingesting oth- erness at least as far back as Third Isaiah (circa late sixth to mid-fifth century b.c.e.). Describing the actions of those Israelites who act like the “Other,” Isaiah 65:4 reports that they “eat the flesh of swine, with broth of unclean things in their bowls.”53 Further, the consumption of pig (Isaiah 66:17), as well as the manipulation of its blood (Isaiah 66:3), are associated with idolatrous cultic practices. To act like the “Other” is to eat like the “Other”; and to eat like the “Other” is to eat pork.54 In short, pork is the ultimate metonym for the “culinary Other” in Israelite/Jewish literature long before the Tannaitic period.

Several texts from the Second Temple period equate the ingestion of pork with the submission to foreign domination. For example, as recorded in 2 Maccabees 6:18–7:42, when presented by Antiochus IV with the option of either eating pork or being tortured and killed, both the scribe Eleazar and a family of eight (seven brothers and a mother) choose death.

Philo reports that, during a pogrom in Alexandria in 38 c.e., mobs captured Jewish women and forced them to eat pork.59 Those who ingest the pig meat – thus symbolically submitting to Flaccus (and, by extension, to Rome, as Flaccus is the Roman prefect of Egypt) via an act of ingesting the metonymic food of the “Other” – are let go; those who follow the example of their ancestors in 2 and 4 Maccabees are tortured.
Regardless of the veracity of these accounts, the underlying assumption is that compelling Jews to ingest pork directly equates with compelling Jews to ingest Otherness. Even though these various Jewish authors might embellish (or invent) historical facts, the very fact that they con- sider the forced consumption of pork to be a practice that affects Jewish identity highlights that the principle of “you are what you (do and do not) eat” is in operation in these texts.

This observation, coupled with those made earlier in regard to forced ingestion of pork, explains why Antiochus IV reportedly offers on the Temple altar, and mandates that Jews offer on their own altars, swine as a sacrifice.66 According to Peter Scha ̈fer (here commenting on the passage from Diodorus):
The most radical way to annihilate these nomima [i.e., perceived Jew- ish misanthropy and xenophobic laws] would be to do exactly what the Jews most abhor: to sacrifice sows and to eat their flesh. The sacrifice of a pig in the Temple and the eating of pork are seen here as the most extreme perversion of the Jewish religion in order to exterminate once and for all their misanthro ̄pia. The prohibition against eating pork is the embodiment of misanthro ̄pia; once the Jews eat pork, they have given up their misoxena nomima [xenophobic laws] and will become like any other nation.
Through an act of ingestion of this metonymic food, a Jew loses his or her distinct identity.68 Antiochus IV seemingly anticipates modern social anthropology in his laws and actions – at least, rhetorically – manipulating food practices in an attempt to effect change in the identity of Jews in antiquity.

For the first time, the biblical injunction against cooking a kid in its mother’s milk is understood as referring not only to
cooking all meat and milk together, but also to separating the two items at the table itself. The potential social repercussions of this
tannaitic innovation are often missed. David Kraemer corrects this common error by clearly articulating the ramifications of the
Tannaim’s novel interpretation:
On a purely pragmatic level, if the milk-meat prohibition is an innova- tion, promulgated by the rabbis and accepted only by those who followed them, then this enactment will effectively have separated rabbinic from non- rabbinic Jews on significant occasions [when meat is most likely to have been eaten]. Presumably, non-rabbinic Jews continued to eat like pre-rabbinic Jews. That is, if they respected Jewish custom at all (and the evidence sug- gests that many did), they will have avoided the animals proscribed by the Torah. But thy [sic] needed have no concern for the mixing of meat and dairy. The small rabbinized population, by contrast, will have distinguished themselves from the general Jewish population by creating separation between meat and dairy. The new rabbinic prohibition, in other words, separated keepers of what was then a more esoteric law.

The pilgrimage festival of Sukkot (Tabernacles) is originally a biblically ordained commemoration of the final agricultural harvest, which is later associated with the wandering of the post-Exodus Israelites through the desert. Commanded to “dwell in booths seven days,” numerous Second Temple-period sources attest to the fact that various Judeans/Jews adhere to this principle. The celebration of Sukkot is also noted by non-Jewish witnesses. In the same passage in which he discusses the Sabbath (cited
below), Plutarch notes that:
. . . the time and character of the greatest, most sacred holiday of the Jews clearly befit Dionysus. When they celebrate their so-called Fast, at the height of the vintage, they set out tables of all sorts of fruit under tents and huts plaited for the most part of vines and ivy. They call the first of the days of the feast Tabernacles. A few days later they celebrate another festival, this time identified with Bacchus not through obscure hints but plainly called by his name, a festival that is a sort of “Procession of Branches” or “Thyrsus Procession,” in which they enter the temple each carrying a thyrsus. What they do after entering we do not know, but it is probable that the rite is a Bacchic revelry, for in fact they use little trumpets to invoke their god as do the Argives at their Dionysia..." [J.Rosenblum, Food and Identity in Early Rabbinic Judaism]

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*


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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Mon Feb 11, 2013 12:49 pm

Lyssa wrote:
Vegan or meat, poor iron-intake and poor sleep will leave you with dark-circles. B12 and lucid dreaming with dates under a palm tree...

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Quote :
"Pica (pron.: /ˈpaɪkə/ py-kə) is characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive, such as clay, chalk, dirt, or sand.

For these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate. There are different variations of pica, as it can be from a cultural tradition, acquired taste or a neurological mechanism such as an iron deficiency, or chemical imbalance. It can lead to intoxication in children which can result in an impairment in both physical and mental development. In addition, it can also lead to surgical emergencies due to an intestinal obstruction as well as more subtle symptoms such as nutritional deficiencies and parasitosis. Pica has been linked to mental disorders and they often have psychotic comorbidity. Stressors such as maternal deprivation, family issues, parental neglect, pregnancy, poverty, and a disorganized family structure are strongly linked to pica.

Pica is more commonly seen in women and children, where it affects people of all ages in these subgroups. Particularly it is seen in pregnant women, small children, and those with developmental disabilities such as autism. Children eating painted plaster containing lead may suffer brain damage from lead poisoning. There is a similar risk from eating dirt near roads that existed prior to the phaseout of tetraethyllead in petrol (in some countries) or prior to the cessation of the use of contaminated oil (either used or containing toxic PCBs or dioxin) to settle dust. In addition to poisoning, there is also a much greater risk of gastro-intestinal obstruction or tearing in the stomach. Another risk of dirt-eating is the ingestion of animal feces and accompanying parasites. Pica can also be found in other animals and is most commonly found in dogs.

The scant research that has been done on the causes of pica suggests that the disorder is a specific appetite caused by mineral deficiency in many cases, such as iron deficiency, which sometimes is a result of celiac disease or hookworm infection.[10] Often the substance eaten by someone with pica contains the mineral in which that individual is deficient. More recently, cases of pica have been tied to the obsessive–compulsive spectrum, and there is a move to consider OCD in the etiology of pica.[12] However, pica is currently recognized as a mental disorder by the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Sensory, physiological, cultural and psychosocial perspectives have also been used by some to explain the causation of pica.
It has been proposed that mental-health conditions, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia, can sometimes cause pica.
However, pica can also be a cultural practice not associated with a deficiency or disorder. Ingestion of kaolin (white dirt) among African-American women in the US state of Georgia shows the practice there to be a DSM-IV "culture-bound syndrome" and "not selectively associated with other psychopathology".[14] Similar kaolin ingestion is also widespread in parts of Africa.[15] Such practices may stem from health benefits such as the ability of clay to absorb plant toxins and protect against toxic alkaloids and tannic acids."

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*


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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Wed Mar 13, 2013 10:48 pm

The Hyperboreans were supposedly vegetarian.
It set them apart from mere mortals.

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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Fri Apr 12, 2013 7:21 am

I've always enjoyed eating pork because of this christian/jewish and muslim bullshit.
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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Thu Apr 18, 2013 8:13 pm

Jester wrote:
I've always enjoyed eating pork because of this christian/jewish and muslim bullshit.

Food is subtle psycho-energy; if you eat out of spite, you become no different...


Eating Dogs and Cats in China

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*
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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Tue Aug 26, 2014 10:41 pm

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*
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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Sat Aug 30, 2014 8:20 pm

Guest wrote:
Is anyone else here vegetarian or partially?  I was vegetarian for most of my life...then I recently became pescetarian because of hypoglycemia issues, plus, I've got type "O" (Hunter) blood so maybe I'm meant to eat meat.

Don't have a problem with eggs, I just don't like 'em. Meat grosses me out for whatever reasons.
Austere, half-starved diet of grains (multigrain bread, Muesli), dairy (particularly butter, ghee, cheese, yoghurt; no unprocessed, liquid milk) and fruit. Some Swiss chocolate or chocolate hazelnut spread, almond milk and lacto-fermented veggies every now and then.
I hate spending time on food preparation and cooking and so rarely do I use a stove or oven. I'm lazy in that case. Maybe lack of energy?

A multivitamin is a necessity in my regard for inciting energy for mental and physical faculties.

I rarely pass on an offering of free food.

Also, coffee and cigarettes occasionally.
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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Sat Aug 30, 2014 8:28 pm

I've met a few vegetarian females who will eat meat when prepared and offered in a traditional/cultural manner.
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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Sun Aug 31, 2014 4:33 pm

Hrodebert wrote:
I've met a few vegetarian females who will eat meat when prepared and offered in a traditional/cultural manner.

I'm not the sort; I'm a fanatic.


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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Sun Aug 31, 2014 6:05 pm

Lyssa wrote:
Hrodebert wrote:
I've met a few vegetarian females who will eat meat when prepared and offered in a traditional/cultural manner.

I'm not the sort; I'm a fanatic.


Be aware and beware: fanaticism is the incontrovertible vector into Illusion, or Maya.
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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Fri Oct 31, 2014 5:44 pm

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Tue Apr 14, 2015 3:12 pm

Nutritional habits of the modern correspond to his intellectual habits.
Some have called it McDonalization.
It is the uniformity of product, with low nutritional value, heavy amounts of preservatives, and fat, and an ease and cheapness to make it accessible to the average imbecile, out there, who is clueless, is incompetent, or is totally immersed in his public life to have time for anything beyond image and money making.

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Mcdonalization goes beyond business and restaurant franchises, it is about all parts of modern living.
We find Mcdonalization in thinking, on art, in philosophy.


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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Tue Apr 14, 2015 3:35 pm

Overstimulation, information overload, can cause the brain to shut-down, or to focus upon one task neglecting all others.
The individual is immersed in his/her own world, and does not seem to be aware of anything else.
Subjectivism is such an immersion in one’s own world because the mind in incapable of processing all the data, and all the stimulants.
Specialization is an institutional form of this.
The individual’s job is so demanding that (s)he has no time and no interest to explore any other field of knowledge, particularly when this field may cause him stress, discomfort, distress.
Usually stress caused by insight makes the selection process easier.
The individual can immerse himself in his work, or upon a task, and only indulge in predictable, easy, comfortable pastimes, lacking the energy and the psychology to go outside of their premises.
The individual may be knowledgeable in a particular field of interest, or a field of knowledge demanded by his socioeconomic role, and be ignorant about any other, or be unable to see a bigger picture.
This, too, is Mcdolandization.

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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Tue Apr 14, 2015 5:18 pm

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According to Ritzer, the four main dimensions of McDonaldization are:

Efficiency - The optimum method of completing a task. The rational determination of the best mode of production. Individuality is not allowed.
Calculability - Assessment of outcomes based on quantifiable rather than subjective criteria. In other words, quantity over quality. They sell the Big Mac, not the Good Mac.
Predictability - The production process is organized to guarantee uniformity of product and standardized outcomes. All shopping malls begin to look the same and all highway exits have the same assortment of businesses.
Control - The substitution of more predictable non-human labor for human labor, either through automation or the deskilling of the work force.
There are other dimensions of McDonaldization that Ritzer didn't include with the main four, but are worthy enough for prime attention. They are:

Irrationality - A side effect of over-rationalized systems. Ritzer himself hints that this is the fifth dimension of McDonaldization. An example of this could be workers on an assembly line that are hired and trained to perform a single highly rationalized task. Although this may be a very efficient method of operating a business, an irrationality that is spawned can be worker burnout.
Deskilling - A work force with the minimum abilities possible to complete simple focused tasks. This means that they can be quickly and cheaply trained and are easily replaceable.
Consumer Workers - One of the sneakiest things about McDonaldization is how consumers get tricked into becoming unpaid employees. They do the work that was traditionally performed by the company. The prime example of this is diners who bus their own tables at the fast food restaurant. They dutifully carry their trash to friendly receptacles marked "thank you." (The extreme rationalization of this is the drive-thru; consumers take their trash with them!) Other examples are many and include: ATM's, salad bars, automated telephone menus, and pumping gas.

Visit ILP for a fast-food intellectual meal of pleasure, easy and cheap endorphin rush, with little nutritional value.

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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Sat Apr 18, 2015 5:49 pm



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"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Wed May 20, 2015 11:02 am

Food and Community in the Illiad.

Dean Hammer wrote:
"The inability to release himself from the sorrow of loss is suggested by Achilles’ unwillingness to eat and drink. While mourning, Achilles recalls how Patroklos used to prepare fine meals for them (19.315–18). But now, sighs Achilles, “my heart goes starved / for meat and drink, though they are here beside me, by reason / of longing [pothêi] for you” (19.319–21). Thetis asks Achilles, “My child, how long will you go on eating your heart out in sorrow / and lamentation, and remember neither your food nor going / to bed” (24.128–30)? Food and drink will not pass Achilles’ “dear (philon) throat” now that Patroklos has fallen (19.210, trans. modified). As Benveniste notes, philos, in modifying “throat,” suggests the intimacy of association between Achilles and Patroklos. Food and drink will not pass his philon throat because “the sorrow of Achilles is that of a phílos, and the feeling of having lost his hetaîros [companion] makes him put aside all desire for food.”

Food and drink are not just necessary for human survival, but are aspects of associa- tions of philotês, whether the friendship of intimacy, community, or toward guests. The loss of a philos who is so dear renders Achilles unwilling to participate in these activities of community. The image of digestion appears, as well, in the use of pessô to describe the confinement to one’s sorrows. Pessô, which is asso- ciated with swallowing or digesting, also means “brood,” suggesting a sorrow that does not go away but remains within the person (as though indigestible). Niobe is unable to eat or drink, but instead forever “broods” (pessei) about her sorrows (24.617). And Priam neither tastes food nor sleeps because he “broods” (pessei) over his suffering (24.639).

Oaths, guest friendships, ties of reciprocity, and the distribution of material rewards all rest on promises that are essential to the maintenance of a community space. In fact, the Achaian community is jeopardized by its broken promise to Achilles when it retrieves the gifts that had been given. This broken promise prompts Achilles not only to refuse to fight, but to withdraw to a realm in which he will not be bound to others through promises or obligations. Achilles will be bound only by his promise to himself: that he will bring unendurable suffering and loss to the Achaian community.

Even in his reentrance into battle, Achilles promises only to Patroklos. He ignores Agamemnon’s offer of his oath that he did not sleep with Briseis. And he rejects Hektor’s offer of an agreement (harmoniê) that whoever wins should return the corpse to the community. Achilles’ answer is telling, as he responds that he cannot make agreements (sunêmasunê) with someone whose deeds he will not forget (22.261). Caught in a reactive cycle of vengeance, Achilles is unable to make any such promise. “As there are no trustworthy oaths [horkia pista] between men and lions, / nor wolves and lambs have spirit that can be brought to agreement [homophrona] / but forever these hold feelings of hate for each other, / so there can be no love between you and me, nor shall there be / oaths [horkia] between us” (22.262–66). There is something distinctively human about this ability to promise, as it rests upon a like-mindedness (homophrôn) that only humans share.

Now, though, Achilles binds himself to Priam. When Achilles addresses Priam as “good friend” (phile) (24.650), he fulfills Priam’s wish “for love [philon] and pity [eleeinon]” (24.309). This language not only signals the end of the feud, but is restorative by establishing a relationship in which they have become bound together through a promise.66 Achilles asks Priam to tell him how many days will be needed for the burial of Hektor so “I myself shall stay still and hold back the people” (24.658). Priam responds, saying this “is what you could do and give / me pleas- ure” (kecharismena) (24.661). As Richardson notes, in other situations charizesthai means “to oblige someone.”67 Achilles seems to recognize his assumption of an obligation when he answers that this “shall be done as you ask it. / I will hold off our attack for as much time as you bid me” (24.669–70). Coming from Achilles, who has “destroyed pity” (24.44), such a promise that he will be this self in the future and honor the agreement would be met rightly with some hesitancy. And Achilles seems to recognize this as he grasps Priam’s wrist “so that his heart might have no fear” (24.672). This act, following on his words, allows Priam and Achilles to move from eternal mourning to an anticipation of a future. Though Achilles will die in battle, he cares for himself now for the first time. Whereas before he remembered “neither . . . food nor going / to bed” (24.129–30), indifferent to his own future, Achilles now eats with Priam (24.601) and sleeps with Briseis (24.676). In contrast to Foucault’s claim that “the care of the self is ethically prior” to a “care for others,” Achilles discovers that the care of the self, as a matter of self-esteem, is inextricably bound up with others.

Achilles’ promise is unlike earlier promises in the Iliad because it does not rest on even the possibility of getting something in return. Achilles knows he will die, and Priam knows his city will fall. Yet, this promise is significant because it allows the Iliad to close on the poignant image of a Trojan community space. In contrast to the scene in Achilles’ shield in which the city’s people await an ambush, now, in Priam’s words, “Achilleus / promised [epetelle] me, as he sent me on my way from the black ships, / that none should do us injury until the twelfth dawn comes” (24.780–81).

In promising to another, Achilles binds the Achaians to the Trojans. The promise is restorative of the public life of human community, as the Trojan people (laos) “all were gathered to one place and assembled together” (êgerthen homêgerees t’ egenonto) to mourn and remember Hektor, to build a grave with stones “laid close together” (puknoisin), and then gather for a feast in Priam’s house (24.789–90, 798, 802). The space itself is indeterminate since the fall of Troy is near. But the activity of human dwelling is preserved, as the Iliad ends with a moment of care that is set against the frailty of a world of coming and going." [The Illiad as Politics]

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Thu May 21, 2015 2:44 pm

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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Thu Aug 13, 2015 9:38 pm

Nietzsche, Friedrich wrote:
Stupidity in the kitchen; woman as cook; the spine-chilling thoughtlessness in the feeding of the family and the head of the house!
Women do not understand what food means: and yet want to cook! If woman were a thoughtful creature, then the fact that she has been the cook for thousands of years would surely have led her to discover the greatest physiological facts, and at the same time make the art of medicine her own!
Bad cooking and the complete absence of reason in the kitchen have caused the longest delays and the worst damage to the development of humanity: even today, things are hardly any better.
A speech for young ladies. - Beyond Good and Evil [234]

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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Wed Sep 02, 2015 5:08 pm

It seems to me food feels more heavy when eaten after prayers; mindfulness makes it more loaded than consuming food unconsciously, tending to eat more.


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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Food and Culture Thu Sep 17, 2015 3:11 pm

Lyssa wrote:
Quote :
"Food is central to our sense of identity. The way any given human group eats helps it assert its diversity, hierarchy and organization, and at the same time, both its oneness and the otherness of whoever eats differently. Food is also central to individual identity, in that any given human individual is constructed, biologically, psychologically and socially by the food he/she choses [sic] to incorporate." [Claude Fischler, Food, Self and Identity]

"The “abominable pig” offers a unique datum with regard to Jewish food regulations and practice in antiquity. Perhaps no other culinary item has received more attention from antiquity through modernity. In particular, modern anthropologists have fixated on this split-hoofed nonruminant in an attempt to understand the origin of biblical food prohibitions.

Modern scholars, however, are not the first to attempt a logical expla- nation for this food taboo. For example, Philo offers (in typical fashion) an allegorical interpretation of the underlying principles behind this biblical proscription in general:

[Moses] adds a general method for proving and testing the ten kinds [of pure domesticated quadrupeds], based on two signs, the parted hoof and the chewing of the cud. Any kind which lacks both or one of these is unclean [Leviticus 11:3; Deuteronomy 14:6–8]. Now both these two are symbols to teacher and learner of the method best suited for acquiring knowledge, the method by which the better is distinguished from the worse, and thus confusion is avoided. For just as a cud-chewing animal after biting through the food keeps it at rest in the gullet, again after a bit draws it up and masticates it and then passes it on to the belly, so the pupil after receiving from the teacher through his ears the principles and lore of wisdom prolongs the process of learning, as he cannot at once apprehend and grasp them securely, till by using memory to call up each thing that he has heard by constant exercises which act as the cement of conceptions, he stamps a firm impression of them on his soul. But the firm apprehension of conceptions is clearly useless unless we discriminate and distinguish them so that we can choose what we should choose and avoid the contrary, and this distinguishing is symbolized by the parted hoof. For the way of life is twofold, one branch leading to vice, the other to virtue and we must turn away from the one and never forsake the other.

According to Philo, the pig (and other similar animals) lacks the physio- logical apparatus to ruminate – literally and figuratively. For him, there- fore, Mosaic law ensures that “rational” man eats only animals whose own eating process is itself a symbol of “proper” reasoning. Philo is not alone in this interpretation, as the Letter of Aristeas offers a sim- ilar interpretation about the connection between the rumination that occurs in an animal’s cud and the rumination that occurs in the mind of the person who ingests that animal. As Martin S. Jaffee notes, “The point, one supposes, is that you are what you eat.

Consumption of hoof- parting cud-chewers encourages the ability to distinguish between right and wrong, just as it will enhance the memory, the central faculty in the mastery of wisdom." The biblical food taboos are therefore understood to serve as reminder to Jews not only about how to eat, but also about how to think.

Judean/Jewish and Gentile sources equate the ingestion of, or abstention from, pork as indicative of one’s identity.
One finds the connection between ingesting pork and ingesting oth- erness at least as far back as Third Isaiah (circa late sixth to mid-fifth century b.c.e.). Describing the actions of those Israelites who act like the “Other,” Isaiah 65:4 reports that they “eat the flesh of swine, with broth of unclean things in their bowls.”53 Further, the consumption of pig (Isaiah 66:17), as well as the manipulation of its blood (Isaiah 66:3), are associated with idolatrous cultic practices. To act like the “Other” is to eat like the “Other”; and to eat like the “Other” is to eat pork.54 In short, pork is the ultimate metonym for the “culinary Other” in Israelite/Jewish literature long before the Tannaitic period.

Several texts from the Second Temple period equate the ingestion of pork with the submission to foreign domination. For example, as recorded in 2 Maccabees 6:18–7:42, when presented by Antiochus IV with the option of either eating pork or being tortured and killed, both the scribe Eleazar and a family of eight (seven brothers and a mother) choose death.

Philo reports that, during a pogrom in Alexandria in 38 c.e., mobs captured Jewish women and forced them to eat pork.59 Those who ingest the pig meat – thus symbolically submitting to Flaccus (and, by extension, to Rome, as Flaccus is the Roman prefect of Egypt) via an act of ingesting the metonymic food of the “Other” – are let go; those who follow the example of their ancestors in 2 and 4 Maccabees are tortured.
Regardless of the veracity of these accounts, the underlying assumption is that compelling Jews to ingest pork directly equates with compelling Jews to ingest Otherness. Even though these various Jewish authors might embellish (or invent) historical facts, the very fact that they con- sider the forced consumption of pork to be a practice that affects Jewish identity highlights that the principle of “you are what you (do and do not) eat” is in operation in these texts.

This observation, coupled with those made earlier in regard to forced ingestion of pork, explains why Antiochus IV reportedly offers on the Temple altar, and mandates that Jews offer on their own altars, swine as a sacrifice.66 According to Peter Scha ̈fer (here commenting on the passage from Diodorus):
The most radical way to annihilate these nomima [i.e., perceived Jew- ish misanthropy and xenophobic laws] would be to do exactly what the Jews most abhor: to sacrifice sows and to eat their flesh. The sacrifice of a pig in the Temple and the eating of pork are seen here as the most extreme perversion of the Jewish religion in order to exterminate once and for all their misanthro ̄pia. The prohibition against eating pork is the embodiment of misanthro ̄pia; once the Jews eat pork, they have given up their misoxena nomima [xenophobic laws] and will become like any other nation.
Through an act of ingestion of this metonymic food, a Jew loses his or her distinct identity.68 Antiochus IV seemingly anticipates modern social anthropology in his laws and actions – at least, rhetorically – manipulating food practices in an attempt to effect change in the identity of Jews in antiquity.

For the first time, the biblical injunction against cooking a kid in its mother’s milk is understood as referring not only to
cooking all meat and milk together, but also to separating the two items at the table itself. The potential social repercussions of this
tannaitic innovation are often missed. David Kraemer corrects this common error by clearly articulating the ramifications of the
Tannaim’s novel interpretation:
On a purely pragmatic level, if the milk-meat prohibition is an innova- tion, promulgated by the rabbis and accepted only by those who followed them, then this enactment will effectively have separated rabbinic from non- rabbinic Jews on significant occasions [when meat is most likely to have been eaten]. Presumably, non-rabbinic Jews continued to eat like pre-rabbinic Jews. That is, if they respected Jewish custom at all (and the evidence sug- gests that many did), they will have avoided the animals proscribed by the Torah. But thy [sic] needed have no concern for the mixing of meat and dairy. The small rabbinized population, by contrast, will have distinguished themselves from the general Jewish population by creating separation between meat and dairy. The new rabbinic prohibition, in other words, separated keepers of what was then a more esoteric law.

The pilgrimage festival of Sukkot (Tabernacles) is originally a biblically ordained commemoration of the final agricultural harvest, which is later associated with the wandering of the post-Exodus Israelites through the desert. Commanded to “dwell in booths seven days,” numerous Second Temple-period sources attest to the fact that various Judeans/Jews adhere to this principle. The celebration of Sukkot is also noted by non-Jewish witnesses. In the same passage in which he discusses the Sabbath (cited
below), Plutarch notes that:
. . . the time and character of the greatest, most sacred holiday of the Jews clearly befit Dionysus. When they celebrate their so-called Fast, at the height of the vintage, they set out tables of all sorts of fruit under tents and huts plaited for the most part of vines and ivy. They call the first of the days of the feast Tabernacles. A few days later they celebrate another festival, this time identified with Bacchus not through obscure hints but plainly called by his name, a festival that is a sort of “Procession of Branches” or “Thyrsus Procession,” in which they enter the temple each carrying a thyrsus. What they do after entering we do not know, but it is probable that the rite is a Bacchic revelry, for in fact they use little trumpets to invoke their god as do the Argives at their Dionysia..." [J.Rosenblum, Food and Identity in Early Rabbinic Judaism]

Marvin Harris; Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches:

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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