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Black Panther

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Sun Sep 06, 2015 4:06 pm

Quote :
Chiron is birthed by Cronos in the form of horse, a night-mare, a crisis. The Plutonic healing is cathartic.
The opening of gaps - forgetfulness - is a precursor to health. Dissolution of old, weak forms shedding away to a becoming, a growth.
Chiron's hybridity is a formal riddle. Burkert [Homo Necans] cites the ancient I.E. rite of horse-sacrifice [including the story of the Trojan horse] which involved incubating the horse's head as healing the entropic time.
Horse as the symbol of time, the sun rising and setting as Apollo drives it as his chariot across the sky is an old metaphor.

Horse, Ehwaz, ("equus"?); the long distance, which can only be crossed when man and beast are in Harmony. Apollo's chariot: consciousness as a extended time, time as conception.

Quote :
A glance into the absurdity of the world can be won only with an absurdity, a play, a riddle... and a peek of truth is caught in the lightness of playing although the riddle itself may be serious and deadly.
The solving of the riddle joins the fragments and fragmentations.
The Kenaz rune ' < '  is like an inward thorn or arrow upon oneself, like Chiron shot with a poisoned arrow.
The rune of knowledge is also the rune of wounds, rot, putrescence, burns, inflame-ation, scorching blisters, volcanic light, sacred fire of sexual generation (kennen: to know, to beget)...

And what causes Kenaz but the thorn, the first blood-drawing edge of the Futhark:

Quote :
Apollo the scorcherer and the sender of plague is also the enlightener and light of any hierosgamos, marriage of two things that is number, proportion, healing music, a re-membrance over the gap of forgetfulness.

The aspect of scorcher and enlightener together in the lightning: Thor, Thunder, Thurisaz.

Next level pain = Hagal:

Quote :
Hagalaz – “Hag-all-az” – Literally: “Hail” or “Hailstone” – Esoteric: Crisis or Radical Change

A storm of thorns, moving into Nauthiz - Need/Necessity Moving into... Isa, ice, isolation, I, Individuation.
Then only then: Jera - year, cycle, recurrence - the recurrence is a circle around the I.

Now the Futhark crosses into the next half by giving Eihwaz, the inversed Sun principle, the Zodiac, the world turned inward, the black sun. The next following rune is better not mentioned.[/quote]
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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 8:42 am

Rider on the Storm wrote:
Quote :
Horse as the symbol of time, the sun rising and setting as Apollo drives it as his chariot across the sky is an old metaphor.

Horse, Ehwaz, ("equus"?); the long distance, which can only be crossed when man and beast are in Harmony. Apollo's chariot: consciousness as a extended time, time as conception.


Can't move without filling that gap first between horse and time and victory.

The first seven parts are from Parpola's really excellent paper [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] across the whole I.E. migration.
He shows how the later religious Axial metaphysics comes to be informed via this core significance of the horse in cultural history. I'll show that in the remaining parts.

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 8:43 am

Part I


Parpola wrote:
The Horse-Twins and the Chariot

In "classical" Vedic religion, the Na ̄satyas or As ́vins are deities of secondary importance, mainly associated with healing. Their cult had largely been absorbed into the cult of Indra and his sacred drink Soma. That these horse-related gods were formerly more important deities is suggested by the prominence of the horse and chariot in such “pre-classical” rites as the as ́vamedha and va ̄japeya.

In the R ̊gveda, the Na ̄satyas are worshipped especially by the Ka ̄n.va and Atri poets resident in Gandha ̄ra,the Ka ̄n.vas associated with the earlier immigration wave of Indo-Aryan speakers.  

Archaeology and Proto-Aryan loan words in Finno-Ugrian languages spoken in north- eastern Europe have enabled locating the emergence of the Aryan branch of the Indo- European language family in southeastern Europe (the Poltavka, Abashevo and Sintashta- Arkaim cultures). Its diffusion can be followed in the Eurasiatic steppes and through Central Asia (Bactria and Margiana Archaeological Complex) to Syria (Mitanni king- dom) and to South Asia (Gandha ̄ra Graves).

The horse-drawn chariot was centrally involved in this emergence and diffusion of Proto-Aryan speakers. The two-man team of warrior and charioteer was deified, and the mythology of these divine twins spread together with the chariot from the Proto-Aryans to Proto-Greeks and Proto-Balts. Loanwords in Finno-Ugrian languages, too, suggest that the Na ̄satyas were important divinities for Proto-Aryan speakers.

The chariot was a prestigious and effective new instrument of war and sport, which was quickly adopted by the elites of neighbouring peoples. Together with the chariot, the mythology and cult of the deified chariot team also spread. Placing the origin in the steppes of southeastern Europe best explains the distribution of the early chariot lore among the Aryans, Greeks and Balts.

Earlier the Na ̄satyas, like the Dioskouroi in Sparta, were models of dual kingship. The twins represented dualistic cosmic forces, day and night, birth and death. As márya, they were warring youths and wooing bridegrooms, and thus also functioned as gods of fertility and birth.

In the Rgveda, the As ́vins are called several times ‘sons of heaven’, divó nápa ̄ta ̄ or ̊  dívo napa ̄ta ̄. It relates them historically to the horse-riding divine twins of early Greece who are called the Dioskouroi, ‘youths of Zeus’ (i.e. sons of the Sky God), and to the horse-riding ‘sons of the God’ (Latvian Dieva de ̄li, Lithuanian Dievo su ̄neliai) in the pre- Christian religion of the Balts. Moreover, all these three sets of equestrian twins have a sister or wife or bride associated with the dawn or called the daughter of the sun (Us. as or Su ̄rya ̄ in India, Heléne ̄ ‘torch’ in Greece, and in the Baltics, Latvian saules meita ‘maiden or daughter of the sun’ and Lithuanian saules dukryte ‘daughter of the sun’).

The Iliad’s horsemanship and chariot warfare is therefore that of late Mycenaean Greece as imagined by the poets of five centuries later... riding as well as chariot-driving took place in the Olympic Games from 648 BC... By the seventh century cavalry was becoming a component in Greek armies and soon riding was accepted as part of the necessary education of a young gentleman...”

The As ́vins and the Dioskouroi are twins. Their dual number seems to be largely due to theirbeingthedivinizedchariotteam. The chariot team normally consisted of women, the chariot warrior, who concentrated on fighting or hunting, and the charioteer, who drove the horses and took care of them and assisted in other ways as well: “the driving of the chariot with its trained and mettlesome pair of horses demanded a skilled charioteer, whether for solemn parade and festive or ritual display, or for the more risky exploits of hunting or war. Here the close team-work necessary between high-ranking warrior and passenger meant that the two were often of equal social status...”

The existence of a two-man team associated with the chariot46 in the Sintashta-Arkaim culture of the southern Urals (c. 2200-1800 BCE) is suggested by a burial at Sintashta.

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Here the warrior was buried together with his weapons and his car at the bottom of the grave, while another man was buried together with a pair of horses and a burning fireplace in an upper chamber.

In the Vedic religion, the charioteer and the chariot fighter are expressly equated with the As ́vins. Of the Greek Dioskouroi, too, one was a fighter and the other took care of horses:
according to their standing Homeric attributes (e.g., Iliad 3,237), Poludeukes was good at fistfighting (pùks agathós), while Kastor was good at taming horses (hippódamos).

The Rgveda, too, differentiates between the two As ́vins: “one of you is respected as the ̊ victorious lord of Sumakha, and the other as the fortunate son of heaven”. This passage suggests that divó nápa ̄ta ̄ is an elliptic dual, based on the name of just one member of the pair,50 just like na ́ ̄satya ̄, derived as it seems to be from the charioteer member of the team. Na ́ ̄satya- is a derivative of *nasatí- ‘safe return home’ and belongs to the same Proto-Indo-European root *nes- as the Greek agent noun Nésto ̄r — known from Homer as a hippóta and a masterly charioteer — and refers to the charioteer’s task of bringing the hero safely back from the battle. In the Rgvedic verse just quoted the “victorious ̊ lord of Sumakha” appears to be the chariot-warrior. The meaning of the words sú-makha- and makhá-, -makhas- is debated, but this context suits the old etymology that connects them with Greek mákhe ̄ ‘battle, combat’ and makhésasthai ‘to fight’.

According to the Ka ̄n.va hymn R ̊gveda 8,35, verse 13, the two As ́vins are mitra ́ ̄várun.a- vanta ̄ utá dhármavanta ̄, ‘accompanied by Mitra and Varun.a as well as by Dharma’. The primary meaning of mitrá- (n.) is ‘contractual alliance, pact of friendship’ and of várun. a- probably ‘oath, true speech’. Thus these personified social concepts — important for illiterate tribal societies—were associated with the As ́vins.

The sun is further said to show the colours of Mitra and Varun. a in the lap of heaven: his one appearance is infinitely white, the other one is black. Here the sun is conceived of as one divinity having two forms, the white day sun and the black night sun, and these two forms are connected with Mitra and Varun.a.

According to the ̊Rgveda (6,9,1ab) “the white day and the black day” — (the pair ̊  f) light and darkness — manifestly turn around.” The colour terms here used of day and night, árjuna- ‘white’ and krs. n. á- ‘black’, are connected with the two members ̊ of the chariot team in the Maha ̄bha ̄rata.  Originally Kr ̊s. n. a’s teammate was undoubtedly his elder brother, the strong Balara ̄ma, who is white in colour. The early vais.n.ava trio of Balara ̄ma (called just Ra ̄ma in the Maha ̄bha ̄rata), K ̊rs.n.a, and their sister whom the elder brother marries — duplicated by the trio of Ra ̄ma, Laks.man.a and S ̄ıta ̄ — actually seems to go back to the trio of the two As ́vins and their sister-wife. If the white day and the black night are the two As ́vins, their association with the red dawn as their sister-wife is most natural: the three are mentioned together for example in R ̊gveda 7,80,1, where the Vasis.t.has praise Us.as as one who turns around the darkness and the light, the two contiguous ones.
In Rgveda 10,39,12, the As ́vins are asked to come with their chariot manufactured by the Rbhus, which is quicker than the mind and at the yoking of which is born the daughter of the sky (i.e. the dawn) and Vivasvant’s two beautiful days (i.e. the white day and the black day = night).

In the Atharvaveda (13,3,13), Mitra and Varun. a are connected with the two forms that the fire god Agni has during the day and night: “This Agni becomes Varun. a in the evening; inthemorning,rising,hebecomesMitra.” In Rgveda 10,88,6, “Agni is the head of the earth in the night, of him is the rising sun born in the morning.” Both Mitra and Varun. a and the two As ́vins are equated with day and night in the Bra ̄hman.a texts. Agni is the divine priest, the purohita of the gods. As Agni conveys the offerings to the gods,he is “the charioteer of the rites”. ‘Fire’ is therefore called váhni- ‘driver, charioteer’, from the root vah- ‘to drive in a chariot, convey by carriage’.
In the Veda, Apa ̄m. Napa ̄t is another name of the fire god Agni and is conceived of as a horse-shaped sun-fire in the waters.

The horse (ás ́va-) is often said to belong to Varun. a. His connection with the charioteer is apparent from an episode in the royal consecration: when the king goes to the house of the su ̄tá-, the herald, he offers to Varun.a and gives a horse as a sacrificial gift. In the Indian epics, the charioteer gives the hero advice and encourages him in battle by singing of the feats of his ancestors; hence su ̄tá- means both ‘charioteer’ and ‘bard’.

Originally, the chariot warrior as the ‘mundane’ king was the ‘elder brother’ and more important than his charioteer and priestly adviser, the ‘younger brother’. However, over the course of time, the situation was reversed. The chariot warrior, who goes to war, is the king in his youthful aspect — he is the yuvara ̄ja- — and the samra ́ ̄j- stands for the senior king, the yuvara ̄ja’s ruling father who stays at home. These two diametrically opposite aspects or phases of kingship — warrior and ruler — are symbolized by the rising young sun, worshipped in the morning in a standing posture, and the setting old sun, worshipped in the evening in a seated posture. Thus, in the royal consecration, the youthful crown prince (pratihita-) is given a bow and arrows as his patrimony by his father the king, and he there after drives off in a chariot to capture a hundred cows.

Mitra represented kingship and Varun.a priesthood. In the Atharvaveda, Varun.a is a master of magic, which was the domain of the royal purohita.

In the Veda, night, darkness and Varun.a are all connected with death. That the two As ́vins were connected not only with day and night but also with life and death as early as Proto-Aryan times is suggested by the Greek evidence. According to Homer, the Dioskouroi “have this honour from Zeus, albeit in the nether world, they pass from death to life and life to death on alternate days, and enjoy equal honours with the Gods”. Corresponding to the idea that one of the Dioskouroi is immortal, belonging to the celestials, and the other mortal and belonging to the deceased, sometimes one is depicted with a white horse and the other with a black horse. In Greece and India, the equestrian twins were conceived of as saviours, and that this is due to common heritage is shown by the fact that, in both countries, they were also invoked by people in peril at sea, even though the Vedic people no longer had direct contact with the sea. That, as saviours, the As ́vins were often funerary divinities ef- fecting the regeneration of the dead can be seen from the help they rendered to Vandana.
Vandana had become decrepit with old age; his regeneration out of the ground (also: womb) is compared to the skilful repair of an old chariot that threatens to fall into pieces. Vandana had been buried and was like one who sleeps in the lap of the goddess of destruction (i.e., a dead person); he rested like the sun in darkness; the As ́vins dug him up like a buried ornament of gold, beautiful to look at.185 In another hymn, too, the dug-up Van- dana is compared to a dug-up hidden treasure.186 The As ́vins lifted Vandana up so that he could see the sun, i.e., live. The As ́vins dug Vandana up from a pit,188 i.e., grave.
In other words, as “healers” and “saviours”, the As ́vins were largely psychopomps and revivers of the dead. The rejuve- nation accomplished by the As ́vins is several times compared to the renovation of an old chariot.

In the Sintashta-Arkaim culture of the southern Urals, deceased aristocrats were buried with their horses and chariots. The chariot was thus intimately involved with burial rites, and was probably assumed to take the dead hero to the other world. In the 23rd song of the Iliad, Homer, when describing the funeral of Patroclus, reports (verses 171-2) that four horses were cast upon his pyre. The chariot, too, was involved in the funeral, but in a different way. In the athletic contests in honour of the dead hero, his belongings were divided as victory prizes, and the most important of these contests was the chariot race described at length in this song. Willem Caland191 has drawn attention to the fact that a comparable horse race, per- formed by riders on the day of the burial, belonged to the pre-Christian traditions of the Baltic people as well. The prize consisted either of money placed on the top of the goal post, or of property of the deceased, divided and placed at certain intervals along the route. The burial day ended in a drinking bout.

Marcus Sparreboom, in his doctoral dissertation on Chariots in the Veda, actually maintained that “a connection with funeral ceremonies cannot be demonstrated for Indian racing practice”. He did, however, find some indirect evidence: according to the Baudha ̄yana S ́rautasu ̄tra (11,6-8 ), a left turn is made at the turning post in the chariot race of the va ̄japeya rite, just as in the Greek funeral race, although “in the Vedic ritual, left turns were generally considered inauspicious or associated with funerary ceremonies”.

I believe that a reference to a funeral chariot race has survived in a hymn to the As ́vins,

Rgveda 1,116: “O you two who had triumphed with (your) strong-winged (horses) urged to a fast course or through the incitements of the gods, (your) ass won a thousand (cows) in Yama’s prize-contest, O Na ̄satyas”. No scholar seems to have interpreted the phrase “Yama’s prize-contest” (a ̄ja ́ ̄ yamásya pradháne) as referring to a funeral chariot race, though Yama is the god of death and the Yama hymns of Book X were used in funeral rites. The number one thousand is connected with the sun, which is said to have a thousand rays — often understood as cattle.

The marriage context is also very relevant here, for the conclusion of funeral rituals aiming at rejuvenation and the attainment of heaven coincides with the beginning ofnewlifeintheimpregnationwhichtakesplaceatawedding.214 Regenerationimplies re-entering the womb: “A son is a light in the highest heaven. The husband enters the wife; having become a germ (he enters) the mother; having become renewed in her, he is born in the tenth month. In RV 10,184,2-3, the As ́vins are asked to place an embryo in the wife by means of a golden fire drill, so that he may be born in the tenth month. The embryo is equated with the fire — the embryo of the waters hidden in the as ́vattha wood. The fire-drill consists of a female plank of s ́am ̄ı wood and of a male stick of as ́vattha wood — and as ́vatthá- is folk-etymologically explained to have got its name because the fire stood
(-tthá- < -sthá-) in it one year in the shape of the horse (ás ́va-).

The As ́vins are deities of both death and (re)birth, saving people by helping them make the dangerous, liminal passage. They appear in the morning and evening, at the junctures between night and day, or death and life: Janus-like, their white-and-black appearance unites these opposites.218 In this, they are like the Dioskouroi, of whom one is immortal and the other mortal, and who visit both the heavenly abode of the gods and the nether world in turn. I agree with Thomas Oberlies (1993) that they are very much “gods of the middle position, or space in between”.

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 8:44 am

Part II


Parpola wrote:
""The mountain" as the turning post and the axis mundi

The Jaimin ̄ıya-Bra ̄hman.a contains another case where the gods did not agree among themselves and decided on the matter by means of a chariot race. This concerns the appropriation of the a ̄jya lauds: “They said: ‘Let us compete in a chariot-race for them and make the mountain the turning-post.’ ... because they made the mountain the turning-post, therefore that (mythical) mountain is called a stick (ka ̄s.t.ha).” Bodewitz comments: “According to Caland, Auswahl, 22, n. 6 the mountain probably is the sun. In my opinion giri without further qualifications denotes the primordial hill, the cosmic mountain, the axis mundi, later mostly identified with Meru. Because this cosmic mountain was used as the turning-post (ka ̄s.t.ha ̄) in the chariot-race of the gods, therefore it is also called the stick (ka ̄s.t.ha ̄ [sic for ka ̄s.t.ha]220 ). This seems to refer to the fact that this cosmic hill was also regarded as the worldtree and used as the stick in the churning of the ocean. Nirukta 2,15 probably equates a ̄ditya and ka ̄s.t.ha ̄ on account of the identity of sun and axis mundi.

According to the Aitareya-Bra ̄hman.a (3,44,4), “The (sun) never really sets or rises. In that they think of him ‘He is setting’, verily having reached the end of the day, he inverts himself; thus he makes evening below, day above. Again in that they think of him ‘He is rising in the morning’, verily having reached the end of the night he inverts himself; thus he makes day below, night above.” The sun (or the single wheel of the sun’s chariot) is understood to have a bright side and a dark side; it turns its bright side downwards (towards the earth) in the morning in the east; it turns this bright side upwards (towards the sky) in the evening in the west. This conception can be traced back to the Rgveda: particularly clear is the earlier cited verse RV 1,115,5, which speaks of the bright and dark sides of the sun as visible forms of Mitra and Varun.a.

The As ́vins complete their circuit (vartís-) around the world in one day, just like the sun. This is enacted in the Vedic ritual by the adhvaryu and pratiprastha ̄tar priests, who impersonate the two As ́vins: they go around the sacrificial stake, covering with their hands the sukra- and manthin- cups of Soma, which are explained to represent the sun and the moon: “thereby they make them invisible; whence no one sees yonder sun and moon when they go forward (eastwards). Having gone round to the front (of the stake), they uncover (the cups), and offer them while standing in front: thereby they make them visible; whence every one sees yonder sun and moon when they go backwards [westwards]”

The pre-Christian epic songs of Finnish folk poetry, epitomized in Lönnrot’s Kalevala, have the Sampo as one of their central themes. This magic mill grinding out all kinds of riches was created by a heroic smith, Ilmarinen, the maker of the sky and its luminaries...

The magic mill Sampo shares with the vault of heaven the standing epithet kirjokansi ‘having a decorated lid’. The most widely supported interpretation sees in the Sampo a world pillar that rose from the northern mountain to the pole star, having the rotating starry heavens as its cover. The two hero brothers have been compared with the Dioskouroi (who rescue their sister Helen) and the As ́vins: they woo and rescue the solar maiden lockedinthenorthernmountain. Heinrich Lüders saw a striking parallellism between Väinämöinen’s opening the mountain of the north with a magic song and thus releasing the heavenly luminaries, on the one hand, and the opening of the cave of Vala and the release of the light and the cows by Brhaspati or An ̇giras using the sacred song or expression of truth (rta-).

Sampo originally denoted the world pillar: a related word, meaning ‘pillar, pole, boundary stone, world pillar’, is Finnic *sampas (Finnish sammas, sampas, Estonian sammas, sambas). Its derivation from Proto-Aryan *stambha-s ‘prop, post, (cos- mic) pillar’, first suggested in 1930, is now widely accepted.

The Sampo was understood to be a a magic mill grinding out any grain and other material wealth for its owner. Martti Haavio has compared the Sampo to the Indian epic and pura ̄n.ic myth of the churning of the milk ocean, in which the cosmic mountain was used as the churning stick and all sorts of treasures were produced. I have already quoted Henk Bodewitz to the effect that the turning post (ka ̄s..tha ̄-) of the divine chariot race represents the cosmic mountain as the churning stick (ka ̄s..tha-) of the cosmic ocean.

The chief product from the churning of the milk ocean was the nectar of immor- tality. The Vedic domestic ritual describes a ceremony of receiving honoured guests, called arghá-. That this ceremony goes back to Proto-Aryan times is suggested by the Finnish compound arvovieras ‘honoured guest’, with Proto-Finno-Ugrian *arva ‘price, value’ from Proto-Aryan *argha ‘price, value’. The guest was offered a drink which consisted of sour milk (dádhi-) and honey (and ghee); its name madhuparká- or madhu- mantha- suggests it was churned.

This drink can be connected with the horse and the As ́vins. A famous horse of the Rgvedic period is Dadhikra ̄van: its name contains the word dádhi- ‘sour milk’. The same word is found in the name of Sage Dadhyañc, whom the As ́vins decapitated and revived with a horse’s head, so that he would be able to teach them the secret of “honey- knowledge”, madhu-vidya ̄. This secret amounted to reviving the dead, and probably involved a drink of immortality containing honey and sour milk. In the Finnish folk epic, the mother of a dead hero asks the bee to fetch honey from the highest heaven so that she can revive her son. A unique grave in the mid-Volga region near Samara contained a human skeleton, which had the skull of a horse instead of a man. This archaeological find from the Sintashta-Arkaim horizon — probably representing the Proto-Aryan culture — parallels the Vedic myth of Sage Dadhyañc."

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 8:45 am

Part III

Parpola wrote:
"Honey, beer and the horse twins

The mid-Volga region has been famous for its honey-forests. Honey-beer was the only kind of alcoholic drink in Russia until the days of Peter the Great, and beeswax one of its principal trade products.

“Of all the [Vedic] gods the As ́vins are most closely connected with honey (madhu), with which they are mentioned in many passages. They have [in their chariot] a skin[- bag] filled with honey... They only are said to be fond of honey (madhu ̄yu, ma ̄dhv ̄ı) or drinkers of it (madhupa ̄)... They give honey to the bee (1,112,21 cp. 10,40,6) and are compared with bees (10,106,10)...”. After the chariot race of the va ̄japeya rite, the brahman priest who represents Brhaspati, the divine purohita and charioteer, receives a golden vessel full of honey. All va ̄japeya charioteers receive an abundance of alcoholic sura ̄, a drink also associated with the As ́vins. “Drinking this, they sit down enjoying themselves and being exalted”, says Baudha ̄yana.

Finnish peijas from Proto-Finno-Ugrian *paiyas denotes a ‘ritual drinking bout in con- nection with marriage, funerals, and bear-killing’. It goes back to Proto-Aryan *paiya-s, which has become péya- (m.) ‘ritual drink offering’ in Vedic. Twelve péya- offerings are to be performed during the year preceding the va ̄ja peya sacrifice. Asaneuternoun, peya- denotes a drink, e.g., madhupéya-, a honey drink of which the As ́vins partake.

The main prize of the va ̄japeya is va ́ ̄ja-, vigour or power generating new life and food. Va ́ ̄ja- comes from the Old Indo-Aryan root *vaj- ‘to be powerful’, which is attested only in nominal and verbal derivatives, from Proto-Indo-European *weg’- ‘to be(come) powerful’.

The va ́ ̄ja- as the prize and goal of the va ̄japeya is represented by the top-piece of the sacrificial stake, called cas.a ́ ̄la- and made of wheat. After the chariot race of the va ̄japeya, a ladder is erected against the sacrificial post, and the sacrificer ascends it. Having reached the top, he touches the top-piece made of wheat, saying “We have reached the sun, O gods!” “And as to why he touches the wheat: wheat is food, and he who offers the Va ̄japeya, wins food.

The va ̄japeya texts emphasize the va ̄ja’s identification with food, and all growth and vegetation on the earth depends upon the sun.

The va ̄japeya is to be performed in the autumn. The combination of the sun and food as the prize or goal of the va ̄japeya has led to the suggestion that the race was originally part of the new year celebrations at winter solstice. Its purpose would have been to infuse the nature with new generative power.

The Finns have celebrated kekri in late autumn at the end of the agricultural year with feasting, games and prognostications about the new year. Kekri, from earlier *kekräj, is a derivative from Proto-Finno-Ugric *kekrä, ‘wheel, circle, cycle’, borrowed from early Proto-Aryan *kekro- (from Proto-Indo-European kwekwlo-), a protoform of Sanskrit cakrá-.
In Saami, *kekrä developed into geavri meaning ‘a circular thing’."

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 8:47 am

Part IV


Parpola wrote:
"Finnic *kärsä ‘pig’s snout’

In the va ̄japeya, the top-piece of the sacrificial pillar is called cas.a ́ ̄la-. This word is attested twice in the Rgveda, both times in connection with the sacrificial pillar. The original meaning is thought to be the disk-like front part of a boar’s snout. This meaning is certain in Maitra ̄yan. ̄ı Sam. hita ̄ 1,6,3, where it is said that “this earth was in the beginning as large as the snout of a boar” . With the meaning ‘pig’s snout’ the word can be explained as a dissimilatory development of earlier *cars.a ́ ̄la-, a derivative (with the suffix -a ̄la-) of the root cars.- / kars.- ‘to drag, to draw furrows’, cf. Avestan karša- m. n. ‘fur- row’. Indo-Aryan cars. - goes back to Proto-Aryan *carš- < early Proto-Aryan *cerš- < *kerš- from Proto-Indo-European *kwels- ‘to draw furrows’ (cf. Hittite gul-ša-an-zi ‘they incise’; Greek télson n. ‘the last furrow of a field’).
The pig’s habit to scratch the earth is often compared to ploughing.

The boar seems to have been appreciated in the Bactria and Margiana Archaeological Complex, which during its peak phase has produced among other things a magnificent ceremonial mace head depicting the boar —, in the Avesta the god of victory, V r Traγna, runs in the shape of a boar (vara ̄za) in front of MiTra and cuts down men false to the contract (miTro ̄.druˇjaιm mašya ̄naιm).
The Indian tradition has preserved an indication of how the god of victory in the shape of a boar goes in front of MiTra — the original chariot-warrior.
On analogy with the sacrificial pole, this means that the top-piece cas.a ̄la is fixed to the tip of the pole at the very front of the chariot. Thus the boar symbolized by his snout always goes in front of the chariot-warrior.

Besides *kekrä ‘wheel’ and *kärsä ‘pig’s snout’ as the copper front-plate of the chariot pole, there are other early Finno-Ugrian loanwords from Proto-Aryan that can be asso- ciated with the chariot and thereby with the cult of the Na ̄satyas. One is Proto-Finno- Ugrian *res ́mä ‘rope’ from early Proto-Aryan *rec ́mi- ‘string, rope, cord’.293 Old Indo- Aryan ras ́mi- denotes ‘rays of the sun’ and ‘reins’ connected with the charioteer and the As ́vins.

The va ̄japeya sacrifice culminates in a chariot race. The sacrificer touches the two wheels and ascends the chariot with the formula,

“At the impulse of God Savitr, may I ̊ win va ̄ja through the va ̄ja-winning Brhaspati”.

At the same time, the brahman priest puts his  arms on the wheel and ascends it. This chariot wheel had been placed horizontally on the top of a post consisting of a chariot axle and fixed in the ground at the starting point of the race, on the border of the sacrificial area. The brahman priest recites the formula,

“At the impulse of God Savitr, may I ascend the highest vault through the va ̄ja-winning  Brhaspati”.

When the race starts at noon, the brahman priest sings the va ̄jina ̄m. sa ̄man ̊ and either he himself or some assistant turns the chariot wheel on which he is sitting three times sunwise.

Here the formula equates the rotating chariot wheel on the top of a chariot axle ex- pressly with the highest heaven, to which the brahman symbolically ascends. We obtain a model corresponding to the conception behind the magic mill of the Finnic poems, the cosmic pillar supporting the rotating, star-decorated vault of heaven, Finnish sampo from Proto-Aryan *stambha-.

The Vedic concept of “world pillar” or “axis mundi” is associated with the verb sta(m)bh- and its variant ska(m)bh-. In the long Skambha hymns of the Atharvaveda (10,7-8 ), the cosmic pillar, which props heaven and earth apart from each other, is praised as the ulti- mate principle behind everything and identified with the bráhman. The noun stambha- is also used of the axle of the chariot.

In the Jaimin ̄ıya-Upanis.ad-Bra ̄hman.a, the atmosphere separating heaven and earth is compared to the axle keeping the two wheels apart. According to the Rgveda, Indra “has with his might separated from each other heaven and earth, like the wheels are separated by the axle”. The association with the chariot, however, suggests that

this feat originally belonged to the As ́vins, to whom Vasis.t.ha prays in the R ̊gveda thus:

“May your golden chariot, forcing apart the two worlds (heaven and earth), come here with virile horses!”  If the axle of the As ́vins’ chariot is the world pillar keeping heaven and earth apart, the As ́vins should be driving around so that the wheels of their chariot are horizontal, parallel to level ground. This would be in accordance with the world view according to which the sun’s single wheel turns its luminous side towards heaven during the night and towards earth during the day. According to Rgveda 1,185,1d, “day and night turn around like two wheels”, and in the Maha ̄bha ̄rata, the two wheels of Kr ̊s.n.a’s chariot are compared to the sun and the moon."

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 8:48 am

Part V


Parpola wrote:
The sun and the pillar

The Rgveda also speaks of “races which have the sun as and the chariot of the As ́vins is called “sun-finding” their prize” the va ̄japeya race is the turning post (ka ́ ̄s..tha ̄-), which the Bra ̄hman.a texts equate with the world of heaven. In many Rgvedic hymns, the sun is the cosmic pillar.

The sun seems to become the cosmic pillar at sunrise, when its light separates heaven and earth. This fits the idea that the sun in its daily course turns around at sunrise and sunset, and accordingly the rising sun should represent the turning post in the chariot race won by the As ́vins. In fact, when Rgveda 1,116,17 speaks of the goddess Dawn as ascending the chariot of the As ́vins after these had won the chariot race for her marriage, it com- pares her to one who has victoriously reached the goal with the horse- chariot.

The va ̄japeya sacrificer climbs the sacrificial post after his victorious race. Having reached the top, he raises his arms and recites the formula, “We have come to the heaven [or: the sun, suvah]  to the gods; we have become immortal...”
The va ̄japeya in many ways emphasizes the image of the sun or wheel at the top of a post. Inevitably, one is reminded of “Asoka’s pillars”, which are called stambha- and have the solar “dharmacakra” on the top.

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Their occurrence in connection with the stu ̄pas makes one suspect that they are survivals of an ancient tradition of erecting a turning post for a funeral chariot race near the funeral monument. The Va ̄ra ̄ha-Grhyasu ̄tra prescribes a tree or a caitya ̊ (i.e., a funeral monument) as appropriate marks for the bridegroom to make a sunwise turn with his chariot after an eastward start, when he takes the bride and the nuptial fire to his own house after the wedding.This has a parallel in the Iliad (23,326-333), where Nestor points out the turning post to his son Antilochus as being a dead tree trunk flanked by two white stones, a sign marking an old funeral or previously used as a turning post."

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 8:49 am

Part VI


Parpola wrote:
"The funeral monument and the chariot wheel

The stu ̄pa is the funeral monument of the Buddha as the spiritual emperor, equal to a cakka- vatti ra ̄ja ̄, whose insignia include the dharma- cakra on the top of a pillar . The term cakravartin for the universal emperor is connected with the Buddha in the story of his first sermon which equalled the dharmacakrapravar- tana, setting the wheel of law rolling. This is obviously related to the turning of the wheel on which the brahman priest is sitting, personifying Brhaspati, the royal priest of the gods.

̊A similar episode is also known from the Vedic ritual of establishing the sacred s ́rauta fires, agnya ̄dheya. The newly lighted fire is taken in a procession from the ga ̄rhapatya hearth to the a ̄havan ̄ıya hearth, where it is to be placed upon the hoofprint made by the young horse that leads the procession. Simultaneously, the brahman priest rolls a chariot wheel (or alternatively a whole chariot) forwards so that the wheel turns around three times. According to the Taittir ̄ıya-Bra ̄hman.a, this means that the sacrificer, by means of a human chariot, mounts a divine chariot.  While rolling the wheel, the brahman priest mutters battle hymns, in which Brhaspati is prayed to for help and victory.

In this hymn, Rgveda 1,163.346,  the horse is praised as having been created by the Vasu gods out of the sun, as given by Yama and as first yoked by Trita and as (its chariot) first mounted by Indra. This splendid horse arises from the womb of the waters.

Trita was put down in a pit, but saved from distress by Brhaspati. Trita’s case is similar to that of Vandana and others saved from a pit or distress by the Na ̄satyas, and the pit here denotes the grave.
In a later version of this myth the word used for the pit, ku ̄pa is understood as a well, which is its other meaning. Trita and his two brothers, Ekata and Dvita, roam thirsty in a desert and find a well. Trita descends into the well and gives water to his brothers. But after the two had slaked their thirst, they left Trita in the well,covered him with a chariot wheel and went away.He was saved when he supernaturally saw the Traita song and praised Parjanya with it. In the Ka ̄n.va hymn to Varun.a, “Trita is described as one in whom all wisdom is centred, as the nave in a wheel.” He is like the brahman priest (Brhaspati) sitting upon the chariot wheel.
Some ancient stu ̄pas have the ground plan of the wheel. The chariot wheel is one of the Vedic citis.  Only a builder of a fire altar was entitled to a funeral monument."

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 8:50 am

Part VII


Parpola wrote:
"Summary:

Proto-Aryan was spoken in the Sintashta-Arkaim culture of the Volga steppes and the southern Urals. By 2000 BCE, this culture developed the horse-drawn chariot, and the deified two-man char- iot team of the chariot warrior and his charioteer became the model for a dual kingship and the “twin sons of the sky”, the main divinities of the pantheon. The chariot and its mythic lore spread to the Proto-Greeks and Proto-Balts as well as to the Proto-Finno-Ugrians of the mid-Volga and mid-Urals, who were ruled by a Proto-Aryan-speaking elite. Many of the Proto-Aryan loanwords surviving in Finno-Ugrian languages testify to the Na ̄satya cult. Particularly important is the term stambha, which denoted the turning post of chariot races and the world mountain around which the two As ́vins, as the day and night aspects of the sun, make their daily circles. The sun and the fire represented these white and black aspects of the sun, symbolized by the wheel, the chariot, and the horse. The night sky was imagined to be an ocean, and the night-sun, or fire, was hiding as a man- or horse-shaped embryo in its womb.

The worship of the divine twins or the sun and the fire was associated with the sunrise and sunset, which were understood to be moments of birth and death. Night and dark- ness symbolized death, and the generation of light at early dawn by means of a fire-drill symbolized the generation of new life. The twins were funeral deities who saved the de- ceased from the distress of the grave — this was especially the function of the charioteer, the na ̄satya, who carried the worshipper to the world of heaven (the solar world) in his divine chariot in the morning. They were also deities of (re)generation and fertility who “rejuvenated” old and decrepit people by making them re-enter the womb in connection with marriage ceremonies — this was especially the function of the warrior, the marya, who was the prototypical wooer and bridegroom, and the husband of his beautiful sister, the dawn, the daughter of the sun or sky.

The divine twins were worshipped at the liminal passages of dawn and dusk, at fu- nerals and marriages, and at the turning points of the solar year. Their cult involved the worship of fire and the sun, including especially the generation of fire with a fire-drill and regular morning and evening drink offerings poured into fire, as well as chariot races. The favourite drink of the twins was honey-beer, a mixture of sour milk and honey. Its preparation involved churning, and gave rise to the myth of “the churning of the milk ocean”. Perhaps the twins themselves, going daily around the central world mountain as the day and night sun, were the original churners, then replaced by devas and asuras, divinities associated with the day and night respectively. The product was the “nectar of immortality”, which was conceived of as seed that could revive the dead."

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"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 8:54 am

Part VIII


Lyssa wrote:
"Crisis is also a gap."



The sanskrit word for battle-matrix is Chakra-vyuh  -  Wheel-formations. It is also called Padma-vyuh  - Lotus-arrangements: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

These battle-formations or the lotus-matrix is a constantly shifting, moving labyrinth. With every move, the whole per-Mutation of the enemy changes; no ready exits, no theory of "two entrances" here. Going into, is also a going "down", a descent into the "fury",,, and so likewise, the emerging out is also a coming out - a rebirth,, why labyrinths, 'going to battle' was associated with initiation:

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The 'Theseus' of India - Abhimanyu, as described in the great epic Mahabharath, describes him as the valourous one who knew how to get in and "break" the "labyrinth",, but he did not know how to come out the "Moving Wheel", and was slaughtered...  the gap, "the circle closed in on him". No Ariadne there...

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The "Moving Wheel" or the "orientating 0" are "pressure points", the "clash of the rocks" through which the Hero had to make exit or face death: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Chess is a similar game; the one who goes in must place his step and make his move carefully, else be swallowed up, by the changing formations and permutations.

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In Ireland, as described in the White Goddess by Robert Graves, the "Revolving Castle" of Arianrrhod was a similar account of that danger, orientating initiation and rebirth.

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 8:56 am

Part IX



The symbolism of the lotus on the battle-ground, and in the internal chakra systems of "alligning petal frequencies" in yoga [yoking] are not disconnected events - Action & Contemplation.

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To speak analogically, victory is configured via the primordial myth of Hero slaying Dragon to Free the waters of life from the "undifferentiated" / "tamasic" / "inert" rock or tight-coil circle - the guarding/hoarding serpent of the cthonic world.

Relating this to the "wheel of life", 'the '0' - the nave of the wheel is a 'symbol' of "fire hiding in the waters"...  i.e, to "see" the sun beyond the clash of the closing rocks through the gap or the revolving wheel or revolving doorways was to be made "visible"; visibility was Life.

Ida/Pingala entangled together is a Moving Wheel, or the clashing of the rocks that cause blockage of potent energy, the vigour of the so(u)l...
Grids that can close in on you, knot up and trap energy...

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"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 8:59 am

Part X



To release the water in the RV was metaphorized as releasing the cows [senses], and releasing the cows, as the release of the "sun" - stirring of the fire - looming of speech - wor(l)d...
The victor was called the "sun-winner"...

Here we come to the concept of the "cavity" and the 0 and the nave:


A.K.Coomaraswamy wrote:
"Skt. Kha, cf. Greek Xaos, is generally "cavity"; and in the Rg Veda, particularly "the hole in the nave of a wheel through which the axle runs" (Monier Williams).
The year as an everlasting sequence is thought of as an unwasting wheel of life, a revolving wheel
of the Angels, in which all things have their being and are manifested in succession; "none of its spokes is last in order" (RV v.85.5) . The parts of the wheel are named as follows: ani, the axle point within the nave (note that the axle causes revolution, but does not itself revolve); kha, nabhi, the nave (usually as space within the hub, occasionally as the hub itself); ara, spoke, connecting hub and felly; nemi, pavi, the felly. It should be observed that nabhi, from nabh, to expand, is also "navel" ; similarly in anthropomorphic formulation, "navel" corresponds to "space" (MU vi.6) ; in the Rg Veda, the cosmos is constantly thought of as "expanded" (pi n) from this chthonic center.
According to an alternative formulation, all things are thought of as ante principium shut up within, and in principio as proceeding from, a common ground, rock, or mountain (budhna, adri, parvata, etc.): this ground, thought of as resting island like within the undifferentiated sea of universal possibility (x.89.4, where the waters pour, is merely another aspect of our axle point (,dni), regarded as the primary assumption toward which the whole potentiality of existence is focused by the primary acts of intellection and will. This means that a priori undimensioned space (kha, akasa, etc.) underlies and is the mother of the point, rather than that the latter has an independent origin; and this accords with the logical order of thought, which proceeds from potentiality to actuality, nonbeing to being. This ground or point is, in fact, the "rock of ages" (asmany anante, 1.130.3; adrim . . . acyutam, v1.i7.5).
Here ante princi pium Agni lies occulted (guha santam, 1.141.3, etc.) as Ahi Budhnya, "in the ground of space, concealing both his ends" (budhne rajaso . . . guhamdno ants, iv.i.ii, where it may be noted that guhamano anta is tantamount to ananta, literally "end less," "in finite," "eternal"), hence he is called "chthonic" (nabhir agni prthivya, 1.59.2, etc.), and is born in this ground (jayata prathamah . . . budhne, iv.i.ii) and stands erect, Janus like, at the parting of the ways (ayor ha skambha . . . patham visarge, x.5.6) ; hence he gets his chthonic steeds and other treasures (asvabudhna, x.8.3; budhnya vasuni, v11.6.7). It is only when this rock is cleft that the hidden trine are freed, the waters flow (1.62.3).
This is, moreover, a center without place, and hence when the Waters have come forth (that is, when the cosmos has come to be) one asks, as in x.iii.8, "where is their beginning (agram), where their ground (budnah), where now, ye Waters, your innermost center (madhyam . . . antah) ?

Thus metaphysically, in the symbolism of the Wheel, the surface blank (sunya) in the initial nonbeing (asat) of any formulation (samkalpa) represents the truly infinite (adin) and maternal possibility of being; the axle point or nave, exemplary being (visvam ekam, RV 111.54.8 = integral omnipresence); the actual construction, a mentally accomplished partition of being into existences; each spoke, the integration of an individual as nama rupa, that is, as archetypal inwardly and phenomenal outwardly; the felly, the principle of multiplicity (visamatva).
Or, employing a more theological terminology : the undetermined surface represents the Godhead (aditi, parabrahman, tamas, apah) ; the axle point or immovable rock, God (aditya, aparabrahman, isvara, jyoti) ; the circle of the nave, Heaven (svarga); any point on the circumference of the nave, an intellectual principle (nama, deva); the felly, Earth with its analogous (anurupa) phenomena (visva  rupani); the construction of the wheel, the sacrificial act of creation (karma, srsti), its abstraction, the act of dissolution (laya). Furthermore, the course (gati) of any individual upon the pathway of a spoke is in the beginning centrifugal (pravrtta) and then again centripetal (nivrtta), until the center (madhya) is found; and when the center of individual being coincides with the center of the wheel, he is emancipated (mukta), the extension of the wheel no longer involving him in local motion, at the same time that its entire circuit now becomes for him one picture (jagaccitra) seen in simultaneity, who as "round about seer," paridrastr, now "overlooks everything," 1.164.44.

A picture writing of the nation "axle point" could only have been a "point," and of the concept "nave" could only have been a "round O," and both of these signs are employed at the present day to indicate "zero." The upright line that represents "one" may be regarded as a pictogram of the axis that penetrates the naves of the dual wheel's, and thus at once unites and separates Heaven and Earth. The Devanagari and Arabic signs for "three" correspond to the trident (trisula), which is known to have been from very ancient. times a symbol of Agni or Siva. A priori it might be expected that a sign for "four" should be cruciform, following the notion of extension in the directions of the four airts (dis); and in fact we find in Saka script that "four" is represented by a sign X, and that the Devandgari may well be ,thought of as a cursive form derived from a like prototype. Even if there be sufficient foundation for such suggestions, it is hardly likely that a detailed interpretation of ideograms of numbers above four could now be deduced. We can only say that the foregoing suggestions as to the nature of numerical ideograms rather support than counter the views of those who seek to derive the origins of symbolism, script, and speech from the concept of the circuit of the year."

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(As to how the horse chariot and the wheel,,, battle and medicine,,, body and mind evolved together via the axle and the nave, parts I-VII have shown that from [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][/u])

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 9:02 am

Part XI


Ariannrhod of the Moving Wheel or the 'Revolving Castle' through which souls of the dead passed and were either reborn or not:


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That is my visualization of my Dionysian model...  a "sweeping" force.... [victory]

To you, the open array and march would perhaps be a "psychic leak", but Evola describes this as release of the "second wind":

Evola wrote:
"Anybody who has practiced climbing may remember what a strange influx of new strength has sometimes occurred when, after feeling literally worn out by a storm and having almost reached a point of giving up, all of a sudden the place of and the way to safety are recognized; or when, after hours spent on the mountain face, feeling exhausted and uncertain about the way out, one finally sees the much yearned for peak.

Psychology has given a name to this phenomenon: it is called the "second wind" (W. James). In this way we must recognize that, aside from the vital force, which is usually at work in the limbs and organs related to them, there is a deeper and greater reservoir that manifests itself only in exceptional circumstances, almost always under the influence of a psychological or emotional factor. Thus, the task consists of finding a method through which to tap into this hidden source of energy, the essence of which is, however, experienced instinctively, causally, and emotionally.

The first way to achieve such a goal is rather intuitive. First of all it is necessary to empty one's self and to be willing to exhaust, as quickly as possible, the amount of energy available to the body, until a critical level of exhaustion is reached. Then, what occurs is the phenomenon of the second wind, in which the vital energies in reserve are forced to emerge. Since they are not connected to the physical body, they are not limited' they can do much more than physical energies. Thus, one enters into a new rhythm and state of tirelessness.

And so, for all practical purposes, one can overthrow the habitual conduct among climbers of trying to avoid exhaustion by proceeding at a slow pace, by becoming fatigued as soon as possible, tackling the ascent offensively.

The secret lies for the most part in the breath. It is necessary to get used to feeling one's breath, to immediately take control of it from the very first step, without ever letting go of it. Second, it is necessary to connect the rhythm of breathing to the pace of walking, without ever brewing this connection…

The point is to activate a psychic force because the pace must be increased and yet that connection with breath must also be maintained. Thus, what occurs after a short time is a condition of weariness that would induce most people to break the connection in order to breath more frequently or even to stop and to catch one's breath. Once a certain limit is reached, an inner act is required in order to go farther. Then what sets in is a new state in which walking and breathing form a natural unity no longer requiring one's supervision; there is no more tiredness and the initial speed of the assault is not only maintained effortlessly, almost by some mysterious inner push, but it is even increase despite steep inclines.

When this phenomenon is actively assumed and actualized, mountain sickness is replaced by a sense of lightness, by lack of tiredness, and almost by an intoxication that does not dull the senses but which bestows lucidity, a sense of impulse to action, which is the same that, in psychic training, always accompanies in a particularly lively and characteristic way every ascent, almost erasing the perception of time.

Those who, in every physical ascent, experience a little the sense of an inner elevation; those whho look at every icy height almost as the symbol of an intangible culmination; those who really grasp the message of the vast spaces, where there are only heaven and pure, free forces - they will most likely experience themselves not as body, but rather as life; they are likely to transform their lives with a creative vital tension so much as to achieve the results of the technique I describe.

In contrast, those who do not ascend as if they were carried by the body as if by a well-trained beast of burden are guarding the body's life forces. They are directly and consciously supporting the body with its inner energy, and thereby exalting it, energizing it, and bringing it forward in a manner that does not need to struggle against the flesh's weariness and weight. They are the most likely to intimately perceive the ritual meaning of an ascent, that living meaning of purification and liberation, whereby the ancient world (from the Greek Mount Olympus to the Hindu Mount Meru) saw in the great heights the symbolic dwelling of superhuman entities: what I have described in this is one aspect of what the ancients may have experienced as sacred on a mountain." [Meditation on the Peaks]

Yet, to dig beneath for a second wind, a spontaneity, a whole vessel and body of practice must be deposited or inherited.

The "clean sweep": memory<>momentum

Evola wrote:
"Sari literally means "memory," that is to say, continual practice of mindfulness of oneself; and of self-awareness.
When, however, the breath or respiration comes to be felt as prana, it can then be made to serve as a "way through": when the breath has been made conscious, when clear consciousness has been grafted onto the breathing, one is able to discover the "life of one's own life" and to control the organism and the mind in many ways that are quite impossible for the ordinary consciousness and will."[Doctrine of awakening]


Its a rhythm-setting of the world in terms of its self-assertion or self-integrity - an integrating power...
Detienne-Vernant [Masters of Truth in Ancient Greece] relate Peitho (persuasion) to Aletheia (truth).
The Dionysian archetype of the 'Invader', marching and rolling on like a "self-moving wheel", a 'clean' sweep is a con-Solid-ating power...

Heidegger wrote:
"On the one hand deinon (looming, stirring) means the terrible, but not in the sense of petty terrors. ...The deinon is the terrible in the sense of the overpowering sway which compels pan-ic fear, true anxiety as well as collected, silent awe that vibrates with its own rhythm. The violent, the overpowering is the essential character of the sway [of being] itself. ..." [IM 149-150]

That is,

Quote :
"Against this subjugation, and determining it in an originary way, however, is the overarching structure of dike, which Heidegger (abjuring the traditional German translation of dike as "justice") will translate as Fug or "fugal jointure", that overpowering structure of being that compels all beings to adapt to, fit in (einfugen), and comply with (sichfugen) the enjoining structure (das fugende Gefuge) of being. In this vision of being as a kind of organizing matrix that brings all beings together contrapuntally in a fugal structure, where opposition and conflict serve as unifying forces that allow divergences to converge even as they become mutually implicated in their difference, Heidegger will put forward his own vision of the polis as the site of openness for the contests, conflcits, antagonisms, and enjoining oppositions of the violence-doing of techne and the overpowering fugal jointure of dike." [Bambach, Heidegger's Roots]

The open-array as opposed to the closed resistance is the very form-at of the Dionysian: victory as only the clean sweep of victory.
In other words, it turns everything in its path along with it - this wheel leaves nothing unturned.

Quote :
"Many a shrewd one did I find: he veiled his countenance and made his water muddy that no one might see there through and there under. But precisely unto him came the shrewder distrusters and nutcrackers: precisely from him did they fish his best-concealed fish!
But the clear, the honest, the transparent - these are for me the wisest silent ones: in them, so profound is the depth that even the clearest water doth not - betray it. -"  [N., TSZ, On the Olive Mount]

Quote :
"That no one might see down into my depth and into mine ultimate will - for that purpose did I devise the long clear silence." [N.]

Quote :
"Impeccability is nothing else but the proper use of energy." [Castaneda, Don Juan]

Constant apollonian vigilance and watching from the turtle neck makes one paranoid and oblivious dionysian sweeps in its spreading itself thin makes one foolish,, and both are a drain.
The best formation is one that is hard enough to let itself be fluid enough to switch between the two models.
Either extreme is a nihilism, and also the real psychic leak.

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*
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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 08, 2015 9:05 am

Part XII



Dionysos and Apollo cannot co/operate except on the edge that makes it possible. The 'edge is the center' of mediation, where each is under pressure to stand in its own immediacy. The edge that joins two things together and keeps them apart simultaneously is a middle, a centre, a nave. This '0', in our mind,

Quote :
"it is located in the very midst of these distinctions as the stuff from which these distinctions are made" - it is that determinative center which allows one to differentiate various poles, make valuations.
It is the structure of an edge holding the two at their extremes where they cannot be reconciled.
It is the name of the point where they nearly coincide.
That point or juncture where the sharpest tension is felt between such extremes that cannot be reconciled, inevitably has the structure of preserving value." [Zupancic, The Shortest Shadow]

The mercurial Odin on his horse Sleipnir with four legs in this world, and four in the other, appear out of "no-where"... again, a night-mare, a crisis, a sudden gap. Kerenyi adds this to the psychompic Hermes:

Kerenyi wrote:
"The primordial mediator and messenger moves between the absolute ‘yes,’ or, more correctly, between two ‘no’s’ that are lined up against each other, between two enemies, between woman and man. In this he stands on ground that is no ground, and there he creates the way. From out of a trackless world — unrestricted, flowing, ghostlike — he conjures up the new creation." [1976: 77]

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0 is a symbol; a symbolein is two halves held both Together-Apart at their most nuanced precision, all their immediacy.
A symbol fails to communicate if the halves dont close in on the jaws of the gap and out of it.
Chiron was a horror to his parents.

Plutonicisms at the cutting-edge of the revolving doors and the clashing rocks of Symplegades.

Till then, you are left with a dangerous riddle, such that the head and the body must come together.
Decapitation was the punishment in ancient I.E. cultures of failing to answer a riddle. It was a deadly initiation. Borrowing the head of the horse and wearing it, one intimated that they were the recipient of the knowledge to victory like the sun on the chariot rose after every death, and were thus 'healed'. That knowledge of the horse-head was called the Madhu-vidya or the Honey Wisdom.
That requires a different chapter in itself.

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*
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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Wed Sep 09, 2015 7:18 pm

Lyssa wrote:
Dionysos and Apollo cannot co/operate except on the edge that makes it possible. The 'edge is the center' of mediation, where each is under pressure to stand in its own immediacy. The edge that joins two things together and keeps them apart simultaneously is a middle, a centre, a nave. This '0', in our mind,

Quote :
"it is located in the very midst of these distinctions as the stuff from which these distinctions are made" - it is that determinative center which allows one to differentiate various poles, make valuations.
It is the structure of an edge holding the two at their extremes where they cannot be reconciled.
It is the name of the point where they nearly coincide.
That point or juncture where the sharpest tension is felt between such extremes that cannot be reconciled, inevitably has the structure of preserving value." [Zupancic, The Shortest Shadow]

Right on.
Compare borders between great states, such as France and Germany. Their respective national values are most intense in the small border towns, there is the sense of urgency. For example, the Black Forest as the first German reality beyond the border -even the trees grow differently. The weather changes onc the border is crossed.

Last winter I spent a days driving across the Rhine from France into Germany and back again, over and over. I was finding my own center because of the intensifying difference between these two, he Dionysian heart of Europe and the pan-European man. The God Pan is our lord!

Europe will be made one by the love these two opposite bear one another; a shaming love to the slavish nationalist, an aspiring love to men like Goethe admiring Napoleon.

Quote :
The mercurial Odin on his horse Sleipnir with four legs in this world, and four in the other, appear out of "no-where"... again, a night-mare, a crisis, a sudden gap.

Indeed, Odin is mecurial. The Romans saw this and it is still evident, Odin the seeker, very irreverently put, the god of information.
Here Nordic myth supersedes Greek myth in their understanding of what a god is.

The Greek has to disavow his gods, like Socrates, to reason. But the man of Odin only imitates his God as well as he can, when he searches for knowledge of truth. And still, the Aesir are disavowed by fate - what does this mean? Exclusivity. Eternal gods are trivial gods. Just as Rome fell to Christ, so do real gods fall to other gods; because they are not for ever and everyone they are real, magical.

You had to be there.  An auspicious time. Auspices need a malefix to cut them open so they can bleed their nectar on the heads of those whose gods demand they look up when they 'pray'. ('ask' - very wrong; it's either give (word, speak) and direct or listen and become. )

The Greek mysteries are the murder of a god.
In the Germanic world, which was not sophisticated enough to have exclusive mysteries, the occult matter is dealt in the same blow as the fairy-tale; even gods aren't safe.

The Greek chronology places the danger in the past as the past, as Chronos father Time who was in the habit of cannibalizing his own, and the world is pushed forward where lesser beings like men take the blows of death. But Odin walks ahead in the battle in which all must die. This is why the commands loyalty and not fearful hate, like the Greeks cherished in their hearts against the gods whom they envied for all their splendors and whom they imagined cruel and either indifferent or unreasonably angry.


Prometheus Bound

New rulers wield the helm on Olympus,
and Zeus rules arbitrarily by new-made laws;
what once was mighty he now casts into oblivion.


Know yourself and change to a new pattern of behavior, because there is also a new autocrat in the gods' realm.

But Prometheus replies: I will endure my present fate, until the anger in Zeus's heart is assuaged.

And so he hangs at the abyss, as Odin hangs from the world-tree,
Prometheus suffers after having given knowledge, as Christ suffered after having taught, but Odin suffers in order to receive knowledge. An identity relatable to a human, a father who can teach by example.

Why do people believe in gods they can not imitate? Because they are lazy or because they shouldn't have gods at all. Only ambitious people have use of gods, in others the gods will turn on them every time they turn their head on the pillow.

*

The world was not created by a creature of the world. That is one thing we know intuitively. But Christianity challenges this intuition, and places the one creator inside the many worlds.

Some interesting chemistries began to work on man.
It was a time when it was not necessarily good to exist.
Whether existence was good or bad, this was being tested.

The operation is gradually appearing in the rear view mirror. We can  stay ahead of it, and move toward  a free horizon, enriched with knowledge bought us by 100 generations.  
Honor these fools, and be free of them.

Not to engage what has been left behind - the labyrinth holds no secrets but its exit.
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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Mon Sep 14, 2015 8:25 pm

The second wind is strongly related to homecoming, in the literal as well as figurative sense. It is well know than as soon as the idea of home is relatable to the idea of proximity, the absolutely exhausted man who is returning from afar is suddenly infused with seemingly endless energy, able to walk on cheerfully until he arrives. It is knowledge that sustains our efforts. We can not act without suspecting an impact of the act, and if we can not act it is said that we have no energy. As soon as we suspect some positive result the energy is available to attain it. Strength sets goals? But goals awaken strength. The ultimate goal is the return to what one is. Move far away from what you are and this goal becomes available. Perhaps nothing engages as much energy as this form; Odysseus, who is related to Othala.
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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 15, 2015 12:30 pm

Black Panther wrote:
Lyssa wrote:
Dionysos and Apollo cannot co/operate except on the edge that makes it possible. The 'edge is the center' of mediation, where each is under pressure to stand in its own immediacy. The edge that joins two things together and keeps them apart simultaneously is a middle, a centre, a nave. This '0', in our mind,

Quote :
"it is located in the very midst of these distinctions as the stuff from which these distinctions are made" - it is that determinative center which allows one to differentiate various poles, make valuations.
It is the structure of an edge holding the two at their extremes where they cannot be reconciled.
It is the name of the point where they nearly coincide.
That point or juncture where the sharpest tension is felt between such extremes that cannot be reconciled, inevitably has the structure of preserving value." [Zupancic, The Shortest Shadow]

Right on.
Compare borders between great states, such as France and Germany. Their respective national values are most intense in the small border towns, there is the sense of urgency. For example, the Black Forest as the first German reality beyond the border -even the trees grow differently. The weather changes onc the border is crossed.

Yes, that's a neat example, as life is this very "vital"-politic.

The same behind the idea of the Hanged Man. At the edge of life, values rank themselves into priority, when the mediation through any fixed ground is taken away and one hears the immediate:

Quote :
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"The Hanged Man speaks of the kind of clarity you have just before you are about to lose it all. You would suddenly know what was of true importance. The Hanged Man does not get grounded and balanced through putting his feet on the ground; instead he achieves it through putting his head towards the ground where he starts to listen to life itself."

Quote :
Last winter I spent a days driving across the Rhine from France into Germany and back again, over and over. I was finding my own center because of the intensifying difference between these two, he Dionysian heart of Europe and the pan-European man. The God Pan is our lord!

You seem now, like you found it...

I recently finished reading a couple of Indo-Israel scholars [David Shulman and Don Handelman] on the natural evolution between a landscape and the philosophical mood it shapes. How a landscape evolves, marked by its climate, soil, flora, fauna and therefore totemic worship over these sacred resources, and thus a landscape's deities.
An organic philosophy is a mood that comes with its own coat of arms, so to speak.

"for love of him
these conch-shell bangles slip
from my wasting hands"

...demarcates the soil that is eroded and thinned down by waters that leave back conch-shells echoing the din of the gulf from the rest of nature, in the lover's heart. On the other side of the delta,

The spotted dear becomes thoughts of restlessness sprouting one by one. The atmosphere is changed.

The distribution of the elements, animals, minerals, plants make perceptible, patterns that naturally accrue into borders and set their own adaptation into adaptive pressures of selecting vitalities.

Quote :
Europe will be made one by the love these two opposite bear one another; a shaming love to the slavish nationalist, an aspiring love to men like Goethe admiring Napoleon.

I agree, but while some say you come to love your father only when in loving your grandfather, to have bypassed nationalisms would have been like someone missing the experience of a journey on a long circuitous route for a leap. Heidegger said its only in loving Greece, he came to love Germany, but with N. it was the other way.
You cant make a rule out of this as both temperaments - the one who sees the larger pic. and makes that leap, and the one who sees the details and takes his own time to go through thoroughly from scratch - have each their own benefits.

Plus, the wars between philosophical schools, or between city-level warfares - sparta vs. athens - its the local level values that generated the agon for the very birth of a culture, of a Greece, of a discipline of living.
Evolution necessarily has to occur slowly. Even if an individual were prepared himself with the larger vision, to raise the rest along to the same height needs a steadying... a "mass" cannot make a "leap" before they are light enough for it. I think those nationalisms were reasonable from this pov. as much as I recognize denying them in the spirit of overcoming.

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"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 15, 2015 12:34 pm

Black Panther wrote:

Quote :
The mercurial Odin on his horse Sleipnir with four legs in this world, and four in the other, appear out of "no-where"... again, a night-mare, a crisis, a sudden gap.

Indeed, Odin is mecurial. The Romans saw this and it is still evident, Odin the seeker, very irreverently put, the god of information.

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Perpetual and I had this small exchange regarding the horse in the Bestiary thread:

Quote :

Nietzsche wrote:
"Not even all knowledge and all good will suffice for seeing the ultimate beauties of a work; it requires the rarest of lucky accidents for the clouds that veil the peaks to lift for us momentarily and for the sun to shine on them. Not only must we stand in just the right spot to see this, but our own soul, too, must itself have pulled the veil from its heights and must have been in need of some external expression and parable, as if it needed a hold in order to retain control of itself. But so rarely does all of this coincide..."

Beyond knowledge [snake] and good-will [eagle], one needs luck. Swiftness of lightning to quickly grasp what shows when the veils briefly open...

Nietzsche wrote:
"I approach deep problems such as I do cold baths: fast in, fast out.

That this is no way to get to the depths, to get deep  enough, is the superstition of those who fear water, the enemies of cold water; they speak without experience. Oh, the great cold makes one fast! And incidentally: does a matter stay unrecognized, not understood, merely because it has been touched in flight; is only glanced at, seen in a flash?

Does one absolutely have to sit firmly on it first? Have brooded on it as on an egg?  Diu noctuque incubando, as Newton said of himself? At least there are truths that are especially shy and ticklish and can't be caught except suddenly - that one must  surprise or leave alone." [JW, 381]

One needs to be a magic horse. A metaphor for the swift-footed inspiration;

Quote :
"Come, O Indra, with forceful speed to my soul-thoughts, O lord of the bright horses; hold firm the delight in the Soma-juice’ (I.3.6)." [RV, 1.3.6]

Sleipnir with 8 feet means being able to ride and conduct oneself zig-zag with one feet in the region of the snakes and one feet in the realm of the eagles...
Only the rider with the agility of the swift-footed horse can manage the 'magic' of metaphors and kennings and its incredible web of links without falling into the surreal or the hyperreal madness - dionysian or apollonian nihilism.

The horse-shoe in the shape of the Omega was considered among the pagans, a lucky talisman as a protection against "lightnings" and,

"The cup-like shape of the horse shoe is the perfect shape to hold in luck and make sure that it doesn't spill out".  

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"And still o'er many a neighboring door
She saw the horse-shoe's curvèd charm." [Whittier, The Witch's Daughter]

"The horsepower of a storm..." [s: Perpetual]

The horse's 'whip'-crack then is also the feminine snake's 'wise'-crack about the advice Zarathustra receives.

The whip-crack is startling and such shock is a pause and a freezing, a space through which wisdom enters within a blink. Odin was called the Binder for freezing his enemies with swiftness that is his battle-magic.

Shocks are Plutonic.
They break open our unconscious and the repressed venom flows out or is flushed out in night-Mares. Interesting passage connects earth-quakes and "psyhic tremors" with demonic horses and Odin as a conductor:

Quote :
"The horse is one of the favourite forms under which "chthonic powers" manifest themselves. Horses are connected with both Hades and the "chthonic" Poseidon, that is Poseidon the Earthshaker, before he moved into the ocean (Malten 196). Death-demons are pictured riding or driving; they can snatch people and carry them off to their realm. (Odin/Wotan snatches people. There are also demonic horses which deliver their masters to the powers of death, as Pegasus did Bellerophontes (Malten 197). The divinity can ride the horse or be the horse, but "the death-horse is more primitive than the divinity." (Malten 208f). The horse can be psychopomp; stelae often show the dead man on horseback, and some of these at least must be, like the Scandinavian carvings showing the mounted hero being welcomed to Valhalla, showing the dead man riding into the au-dela (Malten 234f; Davidson 1993: 33). People sometimes appear after their deaths as ghost-horses; like the death-god, the dead can either ride or be the horse. "In the most ancient conception, both slayer and slain appear in the form of the ghostly horse" (Malten 235); in this the horse is like canis. Odin is indeed the Rider-God. His names are Atridr, "he who rides out to battle" and Fraridr, "Onward-rider" (Simek) or Swift-rider. But he is also Reidartyr, Chariot-god, reminding us that IE warriors and their gods were chariot-warriors before they were riders. Among the Scandinavian rock-carvings are depictions of cult processions with wagons, ships drawn on ledges, and ploughs. We know of a procession with a ship as part of the fertility cult of Nerthus on the Continent (Germania 40). Wheels representing the sun are transported on wagons; later these wheels seem to have been reinterpreted as Wheels of Fortune." [Kris Kershaw, The One-Eyed God: Odin and the Indo-Germanic Mannerbunde]

To the I.E.s, the horse in the wild-hunt symbolized the breaking-open of the earth and the release of the sun from its parting. The birth of hidden poetic wisdom, we call the black sun - illumination from sudden storms; compare:

Nietzsche wrote:
"Has anyone at the end of the nineteenth century a distinct conception of what poets of strong ages called inspiration?  If not, I will describe it.  If one had the slightest residue of superstition left in one, one would hardly be able to set aside the idea that one is merely incarnation, merely mouthpiece, merely medium of overwhelming forces.  The concept of revelation, in the sense that something suddenly, with unspeakable certainty and subtlety, becomes visible, audible, something that shakes and overturns one to the depths, simply describes the fact.  One hears, one does not seek; one takes, one does not ask who gives; a thought flashes up like lightning, with necessity, unfalteringly formed – I have never had any choice… The involuntary nature of image, of metaphor, is the most remarkable thing of all; one no longer has any idea what is image, what metaphor, everything presents itself as the readiest, the truest, the simplest means of expression.  This is my experience of inspiration; I do not doubt that one has to go back thousands of years to anyone who could say to me ‘it is mine also’." [JW]

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Also, with the tremor of the ghost-horse or the phantom-horse:

Nietzsche wrote:
"If productive power has been blocked for a time and prevented from flowing out by an obstruction, there occurs in the end an effusion so sudden it appears that an immediate inspiration without any preliminary labour, that is to say a miracle, has taken place. This constitutes the familiar deception with whose continuance the interest of all artists is, as aforesaid, a little too much involved. The capital has only been accumulated, it did not fall from the sky all at once. Similar apparent inspiration is also to be found in other domains, for example in that of goodness, virtue, vice." [HATH, 155-56]

I would connect this further with the concept of greek "Thelgein" and *bewitchment* as a kind of metis; excellent book:
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The furor of the storm-horse is a zig-zag, like metis.


Black Panther wrote:
Here Nordic myth supersedes Greek myth in their understanding of what a god is.

Dumezil shows the conception of god has a fairly uniform structure throughout all I.E. cultures. He argues that the first function sovereignty of the god was divided between two roles: contractual correctness  and magical majesty - law and magic. Zeus was a coming together of Jupiter Feretrius/Stator [magic] and Jupiter Fides [Dius Fidius / law]; the former taking on the charcateristics of Odin.

The similarity in the mutilations of Odin [magical law] and Tyr [contractual law] is evidence that:

Dumezil wrote:
"Odhinn and Tyr are not just the Scandinavian heirs of the magician sovereign and the jurist sovereign. They are also the one-eyed god and the one-handed god. Their disabilities form a couple, as do their function... The two mutilations, clearly symbolic, first create and later manifest the lasting quality of each of the gods, the paralyzing visionary and the chief of legal procedure. They are the palpable expression of the theologeme that is the basis of the coexistence of the two highest gods, namely that the sovereign administration of the world is divided into two great provinces, that of inspiration and prestige, that of contract and chicanery, in other words, magic and law.

All I wished to establish is that, like Romulus and Numa, the two gods peculiar to them, Jupiter Stator (or Feretrius) and Fides stand in an antithetical opposition (whether juridical or religious), to one another. The gods, like the kings, stand opposed as the "Terrible" and the "Ordered," the "Violent" and the "Correct," the "Magician" and the "Jurist," the Lupercus and the flamen. They also stand opposed like Varuna and Mitra, with whom there is an even more exact correspondence with the Roman couple.

Thus, it is not impossible that, from the very earliest times, one of the two magico-religious "systems" that served to explain and also to govern the universe (Mitra, Manu; Fides-Terminus, Numa) had oriented men's minds toward nonbloody forms of worship, while the other "system" (Varuna, Jupiter) had required the sacrifice of living beings, of animals or, occasionally, men.

A terrible law and a flexible law, a magic law and a trusting law. This would imply a particular Roman utili- zation, with the division occurring between two possible types of social relation, of the dualist system that occurs in Vedic India with no (apparent) distinction in its social application, but with a divi- sion between the two possible attitudes of the debtor (Mitra protecting the good debtor who repays, Varuna seizing the bad debtor)." [Mitra and Varuna]

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"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 15, 2015 12:39 pm

Black Panther wrote:
The Greek has to disavow his gods, like Socrates, to reason. But the man of Odin only imitates his God as well as he can, when he searches for knowledge of truth. And still, the Aesir are disavowed by fate - what does this mean? Exclusivity. Eternal gods are trivial gods. Just as Rome fell to Christ, so do real gods fall to other gods; because they are not for ever and everyone they are real, magical.

Between law and norm/value:

Quote :
"Zarathustra is first and foremost a reformer and his work should be understood most immediately and technically as reformist. First of all, and most explicitly, Nietzsche’s concern, when it comes to law, is with over- turning the tradition, both the norm and the law of law. In this respect he is quite explicit: “the creator, hate they most, him who breaketh the tables and old values, the breaker, — him they call the law-breaker.” The Judaeo-Christian roots of this image of law and its destruction were very familiar to Nietzsche. The law and commandments came historically in the form of an image, a set of tables containing a permanent writing that the prophet brought down from above. Paradoxically the tables were immediately broken and then inscribed again and both moments deserve attention.

Within the Western tradition, it is not enough for the law to be written, it has to be written and then written again so as to engender an iconic status or a priority of the one law over the many that it displaces. Thus when Moses is initially confronted with the idols or images of other Gods that have been made during his absence he smashes the tables, punishes the populace, and returns to the mountain to collect the law again. It is the inscription of the second set of commandments that establishes the permanent writing, the licit image, or iconic law. In light of such complexity of inscription, the task of Nietzsche’s lawbreaker is a dual one. Breaking the tables would seem simply to incite the inscription of new and more permanent commandments. The reformer, as we will see, thus has to con- tinue breaking the tables because it is the iconic status of the written law that has to be overturned and not simply its mediate manifestation.

This is why Nietzsche carefully privileges the positing of values (Wert setzen) over the positing of law (Gesetz setzen). Law writing is necessarily an exercise in calculative reason, and hence cannot do justice to justice, as Derrida would put it. Nietzsche, in the Genealogy of Morals, has this to say: “Setting prices, determining values, contriving equivalences, exchanging — these preoccupied the earliest thinking of man to so great an extent that in a certain sense they constitute thinking as such . . . here likewise, we may suppose, did human pride . . . have its first beginnings.”

What is important for Nietzsche, in politics, in philosophy, is an overturning of prior and somnolent forms. What is revolutionary is not the writing of new laws and the setting of new tariffs, but rather the spirit of creativity that can be expressed in tablet-breaking but that exceeds and even undermines any positive law. The space of the creator and of writing as a transitive and singular act lies in the space between the breaking of the tables and the inscription of a new table of commandments. It is a space of suspension of law, a before the law that Nietzsche coins the half-written.

...The first incipit or criterion of reform is that of overturning the old tables, of destroying the idols of the moral law. It is the image of the law, the law as tradition and truth, the law as nature or divine mystery, the twice written law that needs to be broken. This overturning, however, is neither merely destructive nor in any melancholic sense nihilistic. Its purpose is expressly creative. It aims to inscribe and hold open the space of creativity and hence also the possibility and unpredictability of thought: “break up for me, O my brethren, break up also that new table.” This is not simply a desire to invert, to overturn and substitute the mirror image or inverse form, but rather a clearing of the ground, a smashing of prejudices, the expression of a desire to begin, which is always also a beginning again.
The cornerstone is not to confuse power with representations of power. It is not the will that desires power, but power that wills becoming." [Peter Goodrich, Nietzsche and Legal theory]


It is the "image" of the law that needs to be broken, not the law per se. This is overturning the Platonic tradition where the image or the idea/l is supreme. N. does not call for the destruction of zeus, but the revaluation of A zeus. Even in his play on Prometheus he'd sketched out, he sees the necessity of Prometheus abiding to Zeus.
Not the destruction of law, but the revaluation of "norms". He was no postmodernist.

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"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 15, 2015 12:58 pm

Black Panther wrote:
You had to be there.  An auspicious time. Auspices need a malefix to cut them open so they can bleed their nectar on the heads of those whose gods demand they look up when they 'pray'. ('ask' - very wrong; it's either give (word, speak) and direct or listen and become. )

I wish; your saying that means much, thank you. I was carrying this heavy heart for a while, I'm pleased that you're here.

Black Panther wrote:
The Greek mysteries are the murder of a god.
In the Germanic world, which was not sophisticated enough to have exclusive mysteries, the occult matter is dealt in the same blow as the fairy-tale; even gods aren't safe.

The Greek chronology places the danger in the past as the past, as Chronos father Time who was in the habit of cannibalizing his own, and the world is pushed forward where lesser beings like men take the blows of death. But Odin walks ahead in the battle in which all must die. This is why the commands loyalty and not fearful hate, like the Greeks cherished in their hearts against the gods whom they envied for all their splendors and whom they imagined cruel and either indifferent or unreasonably angry.

Yes, but understand why.

The Greek agricultural advance likened the harvest of the corn to the annual death of the vegetation god that the king embodied. Time ripens and time devours. The first harvest of the "new born", the first sacrifice was given to the lord of the golden age. Agriculture bonded man to time, to cycles. One seed that goes under gives birth to a plant or a tree that gives birth to many seeds. In essence, the retention of sovereignty as long as possible, as is typical of the Greek gods, is the kind of protraction that gives birth to a civilization... to hold a rite, a ritual, a discipline, a culture as long as possible. The longest retention [Freud reads repression] of culture flowers into a civilization.

The Germanics were a moving, nomadic warband. The sacrificial pit was the battle-ground, and the best of the bravest sacrificed himself to fight alongside their warlord.
This is why you had said, if you remember that Germany could not concretize any eternal principles like Greece had, and I'd said, this is why germany is the very "vs.", the very turning that is standard-selecting.

Although Burkert writes this of Greece, it applies more so to Germany:

Burkert wrote:
"As ethology has shown, a sense of community arises from collective aggression. A community bound by oaths is united in the "sacred shiver" of awe and enthusiasm - the relic of an aggressive reflex that made the hairs bristle - in a feeling of strength and readiness. Thus must then be released in an "act": the sacrificial ritual provides the occasion for killing and bloodshed. Whether in Israel, Greece, or Rome, no agreement, no contract, no alliance can be made without sacrifice. And, in the language of the oath, the object of aggression that is to be "struck" and "cut" becomes virtually identical with the covenant itself: foedus ferire.
The closer the bond, the more gruesome the ritual." [Homo Necans]

There the corn was cut, and here the oath.

The difference you point out, and which I agree with, is even reflected in the character of their laws. I think I've quoted this to you before, but in any case, Roman Imperialism was founded on the basis of Divine Right of Kings as the embodiment of 'God', the German Barbarians posited an independent Law abstracted from *both the Chief as well his subjects. The Law was the 'Fuhrer', a *neutral domain to which the Chief as well as his subjects faithfully observed. The Roman stress was on Majesty as definitive of law, while the Germanic stress was on Fidelity as definitive of law.
(Let me know if you want to read the original excerpt.)

Have you heard of the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]?

CW started a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] on it, which I haven't looked into yet.


Black Panther wrote:
Know yourself and change to a new pattern of behavior, because there is also a new autocrat in the gods' realm.

But Prometheus replies: I will endure my present fate, until the anger in Zeus's heart is assuaged.

And so he hangs at the abyss, as Odin hangs from the world-tree,
Prometheus suffers after having given knowledge, as Christ suffered after having taught

As per theosophy, Prometheus is punished for descending into materiality and throwing "pearls to swines" from a higher Zeus' point of view. In Hesiod and other versions, Prometheus therefore accepts the penalty.
N. then differentiates bet. Prometheus and Christ, the concept of crime and sin. The solver of the riddle, must face the gravity of the solution and live out this solution. Wisdom comes with a sacrifice. Oedipus, Prometheus, etc. "are" the double edge of nature. A gap is joined by means of a something, of an offering, of a sacrifice. The solver of the riddle cannot but be suspended to join the dots. He is the connector.
So we see the following:

Greco-Roman: Sacrificiant as religion [Zeus/Jupiter]

J.-Xt.: Sacrificed as religion [Christ]

Celto-Germanic: Sacrificer as religion [Wotan/Odin]

Indo-Iran: Sacrifice as religion [Brahman]

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"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 15, 2015 1:00 pm

Black Panther wrote:
Odin suffers in order to receive knowledge. An identity relatable to a human, a father who can teach by example.

I have to point out something here reg. the "one-eye".

Kris Kershaw wrote:
"The Norse god Odin's missing eye is a feature which is firmly established in the vocabulary of the Viking poets; but the poetic language also contains numerous Odin by-names which call him "the Blind One," or the like, and Odin is nowhere depicted as blind. Terms for "blind" and "one-eyed" easily fall together, but Odin is not consistently one-eyed, either. That Odin's one eye was not, originally, a physical feature, but rather goes back to a ritual of the Indo-European cultic warrior brotherhoods (Mannerbunde) over which Odin, or analogous gods, presided."
[The One-eyed God]

In the ancient Indian dice game played with the nuts of the Terminalia Belerica tree, a player began taking nuts away by fours. At the end there could be four, three, two, or one nut left - that is krta, treta, dvapara, or kali named after the 4 Hesiodic ages.

Krta - the golden age of godly truth and the dharma bull has four legs.
Treta - the silver age of heroes and the dharma bull has three legs.
Dvapara - the bronze age of warriors and the dharma bull has two legs.
Kali - the iron age of Swindlers and the dharma bull stands on one leg.

Kershaw wrote:
"In the dice game, if there were four nuts left in the end, it was krta, and the four could be removed away with no nuts remaining and the player would have won, "collected krta" - he was the best.

If there was one nut left had had lost, and in a profane game he could lose everything from his house, wealth, and his own self and end up as a bondservant. This sole remaining nut was Kali. Personified, he is one-eyed, ekasha. There is a vast well of symbolism involving dogs, blindness, one-eyedness, darkness, blackness, and death.

The distinguishing mark of the death-boding dog was its one-eye. Among the Greeks Kyne was the worst throw. In Latin the worst throw was canis or canicula. According to Schlerath, among the Indo-Europeans the worst throw in the originally cultic dice game was called 'Dog', which in fact means 'Death'. Whoever had the 'dog' outcome, turned into Rudra, the Dog, the Leader of the Wild Host. When a player was left with one nut, Kali entered him and he turned into Kali, the Dog in the Wilderness - the rabid Berserker full of lyssa.

In old Norse and modern Scandinavian languages, as in German, the pips on the dice are "eyes". And this is why Odin, the wild necromancer god of the North, is one-eyed. The warband or the Mannerbunde was an army of dice where game originally meant sacrifice. Hence "big game Hunting".  The leader is chosen by the one-eye result, and the one-eyed god enters into him: he becomes the one-eyed god. The ritual dice game was to choose a leader, who is not the winner but the loser - who becomes the dog, who becomes the mad god, who becomes Death, and withdrawn from the land of the living. He is the ex-static leader.

Odin and Rudra were not "really" one-eyed, but typically Indo-European, a conventional epithet of choosing a leader.

Fearsome dogs are psychopompoi. Canis is a greedy devourer, like Death is the great devourer, the Eater of flesh. It cannot be seen. The Wolf-god is the veiled deity who bestows poetic vision and transfixes the enemy army. He is the madness of the poet and the seer, as well as the ecstatic warrior in cultic union with his dead ancestors." [The One-eyed God]

Hades is the unseen and likewise Odin with the broad-brimmed hat and robin-Hood and his band of 'thieves'.
In Ireland, the cu glas or the 'grey dog', a circumlocution for wolf - was the man banished from his own people. Exiled, the wolf has forfeited his rights and could be killed without penalty. He was in effect, a Criminal, Vargr. Slavic epics attributed the Criminal as the hero, as wuk [wolf]... and in Russian Volx, Germanic Volk... but also as the Wurger - the strangler who is the quintessential killer dining on death and flesh and cannibalism.
He is the wanderer, the guest, and always mysterious. The 'guest' in its ancient connotation also meant enemy.

The lone wolf is the ultimate Outsider.

The 'loser' was the under-Dog - literally in the sense of the death-dog under the world.
Of hades.

The One-eyed Leader came as death and hunger upon others. The dharma with just one leg left, the One-eyed Ace was the Last, 'the loser', the "Siren", "Alarm" to the world, showing the precariousness of Order.

Sloterdijk wrote:
"This choice of name plays with the insight that sirens can trigger archaic feelings among those who hear them.

It is, incidentally, one of the typical self-revelations of the twentieth century - and one of its characteristic cynicisms - that it referred to the wailing machines on factory roofs, and in wartime also the alarm systems that spread panic in cities being attacked from the air, as "sirens".
The most open form of listening was thus betrayed to terror, as if the subject were only close to its truth when running to save itself. At the same time, this renaming of the siren voice inappropriately coarsens it, instrumentalizing it for the most brutal mass signals." [Spheres: Bubbles]

Terror, panic, rabidity, battle-madness, ecstatic rage: lyssa, were vision-"stretchers", to swell with life.
The lone-wolf full of lyssa is Spengler's 'Last man standing' noted of the Roman soldier - of Rome founded by a she-wolf, the extended parlance of which was also the "whore" - out-sider/ex+stasis. Ecstasy of vision.

"Hashish as a hunting dog . . . It Sees quicker than we do." [Henri Michaux, Light Through Darkness]

Veracity is a voracity of the de-Vouring wolf. The siren-alarm goes ahead of the rest, and de-Monster-ates the frailty of order in the world, the signs of the time "out of joint".  
The link between the Wild hunt of the phantom-dead and the phantasm of Derrida's spectre still lingers. And speaks of an "Hauntology" of modernity's melancholia and its dis/ease with death:

Derrida wrote:
"What seems almost impossible is to speak always of the specter, to speak to the specter, to speak with it, therefore especially to make or to let a spirit speak. And the thing seems even more difficult for a reader, an expert, a professor, an interpreter, in short, for what Marcellus calls a "scholar." Perhaps for a spectator in general. Finally, the last one to whom a specter can appear, address itself, or pay attention is a spectator as such. At the theater or school." [Spectre]

Odin's spectre always appearing at junctions where fates are decided.

The dharma bull standing on its last leg precariously holds the dissolution of borders,, where the wolf on the inside, is the wolf of chaos threatening on the outside. Odin with his two wolves maintaining order with the sun and the moon, must also face the apocalyptic wolf of chaos Fenrir, that tries to swallow the last light...

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What threatens to swallow order is not just at the macrocosmic scale, but also the inner microcosm; the subconscious that looms and threatens to dissolve borders...
The under-dog must be the one that knows how to throw off scents from the best bloodhounds, by diverting them right towards oneself...
In ancient times, "the dog" was the worst throw in dice (attested in Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit, where the word for "the lucky player" was literally "the dog-killer"), which plausibly explains the Greek word for "danger," kindynas, which appears to be "play the dog."

Death is voracious.
The Wild Hunter kills the Hunger with game.

He "plays the dog".


Black Panther wrote:
Why do people believe in gods they can not imitate? Because they are lazy or because they shouldn't have gods at all. Only ambitious people have use of gods, in others the gods will turn on them every time they turn their head on the pillow.

Yes, abs.

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"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 15, 2015 1:05 pm

Black Panther wrote:
The world was not created by a creature of the world. That is one thing we know intuitively. But Christianity challenges this intuition, and places the one creator inside the many worlds.

Some interesting chemistries began to work on man.
It was a time when it was not necessarily good to exist.
Whether existence was good or bad, this was being tested.

The operation is gradually appearing in the rear view mirror. We can  stay ahead of it, and move toward  a free horizon, enriched with knowledge bought us by 100 generations.  
Honor these fools, and be free of them.

Not to engage what has been left behind - the labyrinth holds no secrets but its exit.

Labyrinths began as dances where the centre couldn't be identified... should not be identifiable.
Dancing as a one-ness, a singular becoming.

The difference between a maze and a labyrinth is, in the former, it has an exit in addition to the entrance, and in the latter, the entrance is the exit... you have to come back full circle to the centre, descend to the very heart of it to come out of it...

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Why Dionysos says, "I am what returns again and again..."

The exit out the labyrinth only stretches the labyrinth.

Nietzsche wrote:
"That the destruction of an illusion does not produce truth but only one more piece of ignorance, an extension of our "empty space," an increase of our "desert"..." [WTP, 603]

Jung wrote:
"My soul leads me into the desert, into the desert of my own self." [Liber Novus]

However, from a 3D, the latter is like a pyramid. The deeper the labyrinth, the gap/Hades you step into, the more you may a-spire - aspire and higher the rebirth...  
"Greatness and terribleness go together." [WTP]
(The ritual of circumambulation around the sacred sanctum [womb or adyton, the deepest cave of the heart] was partly for this reason.)

The Stirnerite individual can break the circuit and exit out. He belongs to the maze.

But the grander individual, who as "the very chain of life"... ascends the becoming of the entire organic past.

How is it possible to move forward without leaving anything behind?
Internet calls them "cookies".

Nietzsche wrote:
"I have no memory of ever having made an effort-you will not detect any trace of struggle in my life, I am the opposite of a heroic nature. To "will" anything, to "strive" after anything, to have a "goal," a "wish" in mind­ I have never experienced this. Right now I am still looking out over my future-an immense future!-as if it were a calm sea: there is not a ripple of longing. I do not have the slightest wish for anything to be different from how it is; I do not want to become anything other than what I am. But this is how my life has always been."

These pathways stall psychic leaks... energy dissisipated in moving in the same circle.

Modernity is the erasure of these "cookies", leading to psychic leaks and depletions.
In other words, man needs to pay more to retrieve the data on the path he frequented.
Leaving the past itself behind is the easiest solution, and exactly what modernity pushes you to do.

How and where and why these depletions occur... has been Satyr's work.

You had said,

Quote :
"We must consider the future as decisive for all our evaluations - and not seek the laws of our actions behind us!" - N

Herein man is different from ape; and to overcome what is to be overcome in man he must completely embrace that the future commands him; that is, the legislating drives of the strong must take the plunge into the future without looking back; the meaning of the myth of the labyrinth. Now that the world has been unraveled and its center has been found in the will to power, the way back to life (philosophy after Socrates has been the quest for the unreal which had to justify the real, amounting in N's discovery of the unreal as the real, the justification being in matters of inferior and superior quality rather than truth or untruth) means first to make a turn into the opposite direction; where the genealogy of morals has led us to the center, the genesis of values moves from the center outward.
'Luck' or 'genius' is a matter of protocol, not accident; there is the first Law of the Future.


I definitely agree, and esp. with your last line.

In context, how N. meant it, to be clear:

Nietzsche wrote:
"I believe I have guessed some of the things in the soul of the highest man; perhaps anyone who unriddles him must perish; but whoever has seen him must help to make him possible.
Fundamental thought: we must consider the future as decisive for all our evaluations-and not seek the laws of our actions behind us!

"Not "mankind" but overman is the goal!" [WTP, 1000, 1001]

Nietzsche wrote:
"Superabundant force in spirituality, setting itself new goals; by no means merely commanding and leading on behalf of the lower world or the preservation of the organism, the "individual."

We are more than the individuals: we are the whole chain as well, with the tasks of all the futures of that chain." [WTP, 687]


What we leave behind, keeping the future in view, is the politics of the maze and all the past "amazement" that paralyzes, in the above sense.

Amaze:

Quote :
"amasian "stupefy, make crazy, 1590s, "mental stupefaction,"
Meaning "overwhelming wonder" is c. 1600.
c. 1300, "delusion, bewilderment" (also as a verb, "stupefy, daze"), possibly from Old English *mæs, which is suggested by the compound amasod "amazed" and verb amasian "to confound, confuse" (see amaze). Perhaps related to Norwegian dialectal mas "exhausting labor," Swedish masa "to be slow or sluggish."
That of "arrange in a zig-zag pattern" is from 1856. Dutch staggelen "to stagger," German staggeln "to stammer." Transitive sense of "bewilder, amaze" first recorded 1550s."

To stammer [maze] and to utter [labyrinth] can be seen with nuance.
The labyrinth, of course was connected to nine-nights or nine-months of birth and rebirth rituals; 9 from out of the womb-navel 0 to 1.

The end is the beginning is the end is the...

In Vedic rites, there is a sacrifice of waters one offers to the sun three times of the day - dawn, noon, dusk. These are the "gaps", the crisis points,  and to hold together the riddle of yesterday with today, and today with tomorrow, one gave energy to the sun by performing "sandhya", meaning "union", or more specifically the union or junctions of day and night which takes place in the morning or evening twilight. In addition to dawn and dusk, noon is considered the third juncture of the day. In giving waters at these junctures, in sacrificing oneself [giving of one's water], one reached the sun in uniting these gaps and holding the past and future together in onself. The ritual stabilized the fragmentation of days, of life falling apart.

The end is the beginning is the end is the... - the moving wheel, cakra of life.

To live to a 100 with generations living to a 100 and their generations living to a 100, keeping life ever united was the grand triumph.

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*


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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 15, 2015 1:20 pm

Black Panther wrote:
The second wind is strongly related to homecoming, in the literal as well as figurative sense. It is well know than as soon as the idea of home is relatable to the idea of proximity, the absolutely exhausted man who is returning from afar is suddenly infused with seemingly endless energy, able to walk on cheerfully until he arrives. It is knowledge that sustains our efforts. We can not act without suspecting an impact of the act, and if we can not act it is said that we have no energy. As soon as we suspect some positive result the energy is available to attain it. Strength sets goals? But goals awaken strength. The ultimate goal is the return to what one is. Move far away from what you are and this goal becomes available. Perhaps nothing engages as much energy as this form; Odysseus, who is related to Othala.

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Really good!, and we may say the Uruz then, is the pride of the past; beautiful horns were trophies of the valourous hunt. Othala or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] is care for the whole ecology.

All my notes on the runes among other things got lost when my comp. crashed. I haven't had the time to rethink them again. I'll add to it when I can.


Swain Wodening wrote:
"The Elder Heathens had more than one concept of what was holy and sacred; in truth, they had two separate concepts. The readily familiar is OE hálig (OFris. hélich; OS hélag; OHG heilag; ON heilagR; Gothic hailags), our word holy. The other concept after nearly twelve hundred years of Christianity has been largely lost to us, but when looked at from a Heathen context is easily understood. It is one of separateness, otherworldliness, and is represented by Old English wíh (ON vé, OHG wíh) "religious site." Both hálig and wíh can be represented by the Latin words sanctus (Greek agios) and sacer (Greek hieros) respectively.


The concept of something that must remain whole or healthy must be a very old concept. Etymologically, Latin sanctus is related to Old English Gesund (High German gesund) as in "healthy, in good condition," just as our word "holy" is related to other Indo-European words for health. The concept of "health and wholeness" was widely used in the Germanic tongues, and even then seemed to be the more important of the two concepts of the holy and the sacred. Hálig and the words immediately related to it were used in a variety of ways, amongst which were Old English hálsian (ON heilla) "to invoke spirits," not to mention our words health, hale, whole, and hail. All of these words revolve around the concept of health and wholeness, and the ability of healing. It was therefore a quite attractive term to the ancient Heathens, and was thus widely applied to the realm of Man.


Unlike hálig, wíh and its proto-Germanic ancestor *wíh- were applied more to the realm of the Gods. Proto-Germanic *wíh- comes from IE *vík- "to separate," and has a cognate in Latin vic- as in victima "sacrifice." As an adjectival prefix it survives today in German Weihnacten "the sacred nights" used of the Yule season. Formerly, however, *wíh- and the words derived from it saw a variety of uses all revolving around that which is separate from the everyday. Such terms as Old English wíh (ON ve; OHG wíh) "sacred site;" weoh "idol;" and wíhian (ON vigja) "to consecrate" saw fairly extensive use at one time. It was largely applied to things that were seen as "otherworldly;" and, even more so than the enclosures of Mankind; must remain separate from the "wilds" around them. The term was applied to words for cultic centers, temple sites, idols, and grave mounds, the very symbols of godly order as opposed to the "wilds" outside. This can especially be seen in Old Norse Véar, a general term for the gods. Anything that was *wíh- was something that was, at least partially, in the realm of the gods, separate from all else. An ealh (OE "temple") was therefore *wíh-, as was a friðgeard (OE "cultic site, vé), thus proto-Germanic *wíh- came to mean such sacred sites. With wíh-, we are seeing the ultimate opposition of innangarðs versus úttangarðs, which is the enclosure of the gods versus the "wilds," all that lies beyond the enclosure of Mankind. Whereas hallowing something makes it whole, *wíh-ing something makes it separate from the ordinary (places it in the realm of the gods), and therefore gives it something of the Gods' power (protection from the "wilds").


A term that may be a combination of the concepts of hálig and wíh appears on the Gothic ring of Pietroassa, at the end of a runic inscription; wíhailag would appear to be synonymous with the Latin term sacrosanct, "that which is whole and separate from the ordinary." Another similar term appears in Old Norse vé heilakt "sacrosanct," as well as in Old English sundorhálga "saint." While sundorhálga may have been a creation of the Christian missionaries, it could just as well been a term used to replace a more familiar though Heathen term. The fact that Old English sundor- appears in the place of wíh- indicates it may have been a substitution of a more acceptable Christian term for one with strong Heathen connotations.


What can be drawn from these concepts of the holy and the sacred is that while the concept of "health/wholeness," was represented by the term hálig for both Man and Gods, *wíh- represented yet another concept, that of "separateness, otherworldliness." This "separateness" or "otherworldliness" would be the divine forces themselves, the gods, and the powers of their realm. Anything that was *wíh- was endowed with the qualities of the gods and their realm, it contained their m‘Gen. This concept can be difficult to understand at times, but per-haps it is best not to try to understand it, but realize that if something is *wíh- it has qualities of the gods' realms, and carries with it powers that leave Man in awe. It can be seen in what Tacitus had to say about the drowning of the slaves who washed the goddess Nerthus' cart.


There is a fear of the arcane attached to this custom for there is a reverence sprung from ignorance about that which is seen only by men who die for having done so.


The slaves may have had to die because they had touched something of the godly realm, and therefore may have ceased to be of this realm. The kindest thing to do then, would have been to send them to the realm of the gods. This type of action is reflected in the Latin term victima "sacrifice," a term which shares etymological origins with the Heathen term *wih-. This type of religious awe can be seen elsewhere, as in Tacitus' tale of the grove in which the Semnones worshipped a god they believed ruled all. To enter the grove a Semnone had to be bound with rope, and if he fell, he could not stand up, but had to roll out of the grove.


The concept of *wíh- forms part of a greater Heathen perception of reality, one which is best defined by Kirsten Hastrup in Culture and Society in Medi‘val Iceland.


When we turn to the layout of immediate space, it appears that the most significant distinction pertaining to the spacial arrangement of the farmstead was inni:úti ("inside:outside"). The borderline between the farmstead as centre and the world outside as periphery was drawn along the fence that surrounded the farm. The opposition between innangarðs and útangarðs ("inside" and "outside fence" respectively) had important socio-legal implications.


These implications were applied to more than the simple farmsteads of the Icelandic farmer, and can help us better understand the concept of *wíh-. But before we can fully understand the concept of *wíh-, that which is a part of the gods' realms, we must first look at how the ancient Heathens viewed their own socio-cultural order, and how that understanding of themselves next ended to their understanding of the other nine realms.
The concept of *wíh- "that which is a part of the gods' realms" was related to other concepts revolving around how the ancient Heathens viewed society and the law. Hastrup in her book addresses this concept of "separateness" between that of a husbandman's farm and the wild lands outside it and expands this explanation to Heathen society itself.


The important point is that in our period a structural and semantic opposition was operative between "inside" and "outside" the society-as-law, allowing for a merging of different kinds of beings in the conceptual "wild." This anti-social space was inhabited by a whole range of spirits...landsvættir "spirits of the land," huldufolk "hidden people," jötnar "giants," trölls "trolls," and álfar "elves"...all of them belonged to the "wild" and it was partly against them that one had to defend ones-self... In this way the secure, well-known and personal innangards was symbolically separated from the dangerous unknown and nonhuman wild space outside the fence, útangards.


As Heathen familiar with our own cosmology, we know this paradigm not to be entirely correct. In truth, what the ancient Heathens truly saw was a series of enclosures comprising even larger enclosures. Thus individuals comprised the enclosure of a farmstead, several farmsteads com-prised a godord and all the godhords, the Icelandic state. In most ancient times, individuals made up families, families made up clans or kindreds, clans or kindreds made up tribes, the tribes made up Middangeard. Middangeard and the other eight abodes made up the multiverse and were held in the world tree Yggdrasil. Hastrup points out later in her book:


Horizontally the cosmos was divided into Míðgarð and ÚtgardR. Míðgarð was the central space..inhabited by men (and gods), while ÚtgardR was found outsidethe fence .


This view of the universe as a series of enclosures governed nearly every socio-political factor of an ancient tribesman's life and extended beyond a socio-political philosophy into the very theology of ancient Heathenry. At the base of all of these enclosures was the individual. An individual was part of a mægd "a family" and as an individual held certain responsibilities towards that family. He or she was expected to contribute to wergeld should another family member commit a crime, avenge any fellow family members wronged, defend the family's enclosures from encroachment, and generally contribute to the common good of the family. As an individual he or she possessed mæen, his or her own spiritual energy, and a fetch inherited from some ancestor. Individuals determined their own Wyrd through their own actions, each action resulting in an appropriate outcome according to a personal law that individual had laid down throughout his or her life time. All of an individual's actions had to be in keeping with that which is good. That which is good was determined by the tribe as a whole, and generally came down to "that which did not harm the tribe or one of its individuals," but actively contributed to the tribe as a whole. The word good, which has cognates in every Germanic tongue, derives from Old English gód which in turn derived from proto-Germanic *gad- "to unite, bring together." It is related to the word gather and referred to the collectiveness of the family and tribe.


Individuals are rarely treated as being solely responsible for their deeds in the ancient law codes. According to Bill Griffiths, "Compensation itself would be collectable and payable to a kin-group rather than an individual, suggesting communal responsibility." In time, an individual's lord or guild would be held responsible (notably after the Conversion when Heathen custom was dying), but in the earliest times it was the family or kindred that was responsible for the individual's actions. The mægd was the institution that enforced the law for its members. Should a mægd fail in preventing a member from committing a crime, it was then held responsible for making compensation to the victim's family. If the mægd held that their family member was innocent, they could then take the matter to thing, or fight the ensuing blood feud. Even should the culprit of the crime flee, the family was still responsible for half the victim's wergeld under some Anglo-Saxon law codes.


A notable absence in the ancient law codes are laws dealing with crimes within a kindred. These crimes were dealt with by the mægd itself without outside interference. This was because the mægd formed a legal unit in and of its self. A glance at the Icelandic sagas will quickly reveal the strength of the family in this respect. The strength of the family as a legal unit also extended into the spiritual realm. Just as the individual possesses a fetch, the family possesses a kin-fetch called in Old Icelandic the kinfylgja, and as an individual possesses mægen, so too does a mægd. Similarly the collective actions of a family comprised that family's wyrd. Families were the most important enclosure within a tribe. While within Anglo-Saxon England there were Hundred courts, and Iceland, the Godords, that came between the families and the tribal assembly itself, it was the family that wielded the most power.


While families were the principle enforcers of the law, they were not its creators. In a metaphysical sense, every individual lays down law as personal wyrd, as does every family. But the laws that governed individuals' behavior were generally decided upon by the tribe as a whole in various mæþels and things. The þéod or tribe was the enclosure, the innangards. The law created by the þéod was customary in nature. The tribal assemblies did not "make laws" so much as rule on how existing customs or traditions would apply to a given situation (for example the dispute between two families over a boundary). The customs or traditions of a þéod were considered its wyrd, its doom, the actions that as a collective whole the þéod had laid down in the Well of Wyrd. Kirsten Hastrup maintains that "In Iceland 'the social' was coterminous with 'the law'...it was eloquently expressed in the notion of vr lög ('our law'). By logical inference 'the wild'...was coterminous with 'non-law.'" This philosophy was expressed when the Heathens and Christians in Iceland declared themselves ýr lögum "out of law" with each other at the Icelandic Althing of 1000 CE.18 Ancient Germanic law was not connected to political boundaries as modern law is now, it was by tribal membership, by blood. That is, an ancient Jute would only be tried under Jutish law, not by the law of the þéod he had committed his or her crime in. The tribe was the law, was that which was good, was the innangard, and all outsidethe tribe was útangards for all practical purposes. The tribe as an innangard served as "contained space" for deeds to be done. It is the sort of contained space Bauschatz is talking about in his book the The Well and the Tree:


For the Germanic peoples, space as it is encountered and perceived in the created worlds of men and other beings, exists, to any significant degree only as a location or container for the occurrence of action...The container is action, whether of individual men, of men acting in consort or in opposition, of men and monsters, or whatever. In all cases, immediate actions are discontinuous and separable deriving power and structure from the past.


These deeds done within the innangard of the tribe by its tribesmen are its law, its orlay. A þéod is no different than a mægd or an individual in that it too lays down its own wyrd in the Well of Wyrd. This wyrd or doom is the law of the tribe. Just as there are spiritual correspondences between the individual and the family, so too are there between the tribe and the family. The tribal leader was seen as possessing the mægen of the tribe, and for the tribe to remain successful, it had to obey its laws. Failure to do so would result in a loss of mægen. The Anglo-Saxon Eldright believes that our law, orlay, wyrd, and mægen operate on the very same principles. The same principles that the ancient Heathens may have believed in.
Here we are brought back to the discussion of *wíh-. The tribe in ancient times was the largest social enclosure of Mankind. In a sense, that which was *wíh-, was also outsideits realm, outsidethe innangards of Mankind, tho not a part of the "wilds," the Útgard. Not all outsidethe realm of Man was thought threatening. In sooth, much of what lies outsideMan's realm is helpful, esp. the Gods. Perhaps then we have struck upon the primary reason for worship, to build a bridge between the enclosures of the gods and the enclosures of Man.


In her book Culture and History in Medieval Iceland, Hastrup makes it appear that the Elderen saw all outside the guarded enclosures of their home as dangerous, not to be trusted. However, this is not in keeping with the ancient Heathens being fearless adventurers, routing the Roman navy on the open seas, colonizing Russia, and even sailing to the coasts of America. It could be argued that the physical unknown did not faze the ancient Heathen, but that the spiritual unknown was quite a different matter. To a great extant this may be true. In the ancient lore when we are met with otherworldliness it is often of the dangerous variety. Grendel is a prime example as are the countless tales of ettins and thurses. Yet, we are faced with the concept of *wíh-, that which was part of the realm of the gods, and therefore seemed to be desirable to achieve. To the ancient Heathen, there were but two types of beings outside Mankind, those that would help Man, and those that would harm Man. There were countless shades of gray between, but most beings fell into these two categories. The ancient Heathens worked charms to rid themselves of arrows shot at them by ill wishing elves and sang prayers to invoke the gods. All of this constituted an interaction between enclosures. It also constituted the ancient Heathens' concepts of good and evil.


Good was, of course, that which helped the entirety of one's tribe. Included in this would be the members of the tribe, their dead ancestors, the tribal gods, land wihts, and other beings that had proven themselves worthy in a time of need. Evil was that which sought to destroy the tribe. The contrast between the two can be seen in the early words for evil. The majority of words fall into two groups. The first group is in stark contrast to the concept of the "holy " for these words deal with evil as illness. Old English bealu, our word bale "evil," derives from an Indo-European root meaning "illness" and is related to Old Slavic bolu "sick person." Similar is Old English traga "evil" a variation of trega "grief, pain," and Old English niþ with its secondary meaning of "affliction." A term that came down to us as meaning "sick" originally meant "evil" in Old Norse. Illr should be readily recognizable as our word "ill."


This concept of evil as an illness can be seen in the Anglo-Saxon charms where wights from outside the enclosures of Mankind are blamed for causing illnesses. Illnesses, growths, and sharp pains are seen as ésascéot "arrows or spears" from elves, witches, and other wights or fléogende áttres "flying poisons."


Evil was not only seen as illness, but also as the wights outside of the innangarðs of Man that might cause illness. Thus Old English wearg meant not only "outlaw" but "evil" as well. Similarly, Old Norse fiandR "outsider" was cognate to Old English féond "demon," our word "fiend." Just as illr is in opposition to holy, so was wearg to good, and such words as Old English sibb which meant not only "relative or kinsman" but "peace."
How the ancient Heathens handled these "out dwellers" can only be seen in the Old English charms and in the interaction with outlaws in the Icelandic sagas. Throughout the Old English charms, "outdwellers" are threatened with sheer magical strength. In the charm Wiþ Færstice the spellcaster after stating he has shielded himself from the "mighty women" causing the sudden pain in the victim goes on to say:

Stód under linde   under léohtum scielde
þær ða mihtigan    wíf    hyra mægen beradden
and hie giellende   gáras sendan
ic him oðerne   eft wille sendan
fléogende fláne   forane tógeanes.

I stood under linden   Under light shield
There the mighty women   Are deprived of their strength
And their yelling   Spears sent
Another I will   Send back at them
Flying arrows   Forward in reply!

Here it is clear that the spellcaster has taken an active and somewhat combative role in chasing off the wights causing the sudden stitches in the victim. Other charms are not quite so dramatic, but clearly reflect the ancient Anglo-Saxons belief that illnesses were caused by "outdwellers" and that these "outdwellers" must be dealt with in an aggressive way.


Outlaws fared not much better in the Icelandic sagas. They were open game for anyone that came upon them (it was not illegal to kill an outlaw as they were no longer a member of the tribe and therefore, not protected by its law), and could not expect the aid of anyone. They were stripped of any lands they might own, and more often than not wound up dead at the hands of some citizen. Outlaws were men without tribe, and men without tribe were without law. Not even hospitality, one of the greatest of Heathen virtues, need be extended to an outlaw.


Of course, not all "outdwellers" were considered a threat to the enclosures of Mankind, and many such as the Gods were considered necessary, so that while illr and wearg came to be used of wights intent on harming Man, holy and *wíh- came to be used of those that were helpful to Man. Here we come to one of the primary reasons for engaging in Heathen worship: to provide a way in which modern Heathen can interact with those beings that help Mankind. This may mean more than just performing rites and prayers however, for to receive the aid of any wight, much less the Gods, one must first prove to be trustworthy, brave, and worthy of the other qualities our forbears found desirable. First and foremost one must understand Wyrd and the Law." [Wholeness and Otherworldliness]

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Tue Sep 22, 2015 10:44 am

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Weiha and Háilag: A Closer Look at the Germanic Conception of Holiness
By Ælfric

   "The ancient Germanic peoples understood holiness in a way that has been largely forgotten in modern times.  Their conception of the holy was two-sided, each aspect being described by its own word, but only one of these words has survived in modern Germanic languages.  With the coming of Christianity into Europe, one of the two concepts of the holy slowly began to disappear, and today is almost entirely absent.  The two words are Proto-Germanic *wíhaz and *hailagaz,1 Gothic weihs and háilags, Old High German wih and heilig, Old English wéoh/wíg and hálig, Old Norse vé and heilagR. *hailagaz survives as the modern word “holy” in many Germanic languages including English, but *wíhaz does not enjoy such common currency.  The complete Germanic (and Indo-European) concept of the holy, however, cannot be understood as *hailagaz alone, but must be understood as *wíhaz-hailagaz.2

Gárman Lord summarizes the difference between that weihs and, háilags:

...wéoh, understood to mean something like “set apart,” and halig, understood to mean something like “wholesome,” are two quite different concepts, which, if so, are useful to us in understanding how it may be that a “holy” innangardhs (i.e., a wholesome place for people to live) may contain within itself a “wéoh” stead, a parcel reserved for certain very special sacral kinds of community purposes and kept roped off against casual trespass.

   In his article “The Holy,” Edred Thorsson discusses the meaning and significance of *wíhaz in the Germanic concept of the holy. This important study sheds a great deal of light on this topic.  Nevertheless, some questions remain, and there is further ground to cover in a thorough understanding of some key points in such a study.

   For example, more clarity is needed concerning the similarities and differences between the two concepts of the holy.  Thorsson writes, “Although the two terms have been separated by history, we must again understand them as two parts of a single concept -- as they were to our forbears -- inseparable and mutually dependent.”  Further, he states, “So something must be *wíhaz before it is *hailagaz -- the two are merely functions of the same state or process.”  These statements can falsely give the impression that weihs and háilags are simply two different ways of describing the same thing, even though the rest of Thorsson’s article is dedicated to demonstrating how they are two entirely different aspects of the holy.  The unity between the two aspects is that they are both parts of a single process (i.e., the process of consecration), not that they are they same. After all, if the two were the same, there would be no need for using different words to describe them.

   Weihs is the doer of the act of consecration, and háilags is that which has been consecrated by weihs.  Weihs, as “that which is set apart,” is the divine source of blessing, and háilags is that which is blessed.  An example from grammar can be used to illustrate the relationship between weihs and háilags: weihs is like the subject of a sentence, and háilags is like the object.

   That weihs is a very different concept from háilags can be seen in the connection between weihs and battle.  In the various Germanic languages, weihs means “set apart,” sanctity, priest, village, idol, sacred grove, grave mound, site where court is held, standard or banner, sanctify, consecrate, hallow, ordain, and also refers to the altar and temple.  Further, it seems to refer to the warrior, battle, strife and battle grounds.   “In Gothic, weihan means both “to consecrate” and “to fight.”  In Anglo-Saxon, the only surviving verb form of wéoh is wígan, which also means “to fight.”  When one considers that Germanic religion was a warrior tradition, and many of its gods were associated with aspects of battle, it is easy to see why the Germanic concept of sanctity would be closely related with the concept of fighting.

   The warrior tradition in Germanic society was important, because defending the folk in battle against the enemy was a way of preserving the sanctity and wholeness of society and its land.  The enemy must not be allowed to profane the folk and land with raiding and pillaging, or by conquering and subjecting the folk to a different tribe and their customs.  The gods, who are weihs,7 were understood to have a significant role to play in deciding the outcomes of battles, and thus the act of battle among men itself was the means by which the gods protected (sanctified) the folk  Religion and battle were intertwined among the Germanic tribes.  The ideal death was a death in battle defending the folk, which the warrior hoped would earn him a seat in Vallhal, Woden’s hall of the slain warriors.  Therefore, battle and warriors were considered weihs, or “set apart.” Battle, thunder, and ritual sacrifice show how weihan often involves giving up or destroying one thing as a means of preserving and sanctifying another.

   Weihs reflects the Germanic notion that worth is forged in the fires of ordeal, that conflict brings about right, and that anything worth while will be earned through challenge.  Háilags carries no such associations, but instead has a more peaceful and nurturing nature.  In that sense, weihs and háilags might be compared to the differences between worth and frith, male and female, and the natures of the Æsir and Vanir gods, respectively.

   In what contexts does the holy apply?  Holiness primarily seems to be present (or absent) in people, places and things.  There are the “holy people” in the sense of weihs, such as kings, priests and warriors.  In Gothic, a priest was called a weiha.  Therefore, the person of the Germanic priest possesses and embodies that mysterious, dangerous divine power which makes things wholesome for the people of the tribe.  He was “set apart” from society by his possession of divine power in larger quantities than the ordinary man.  One can see why a Germanic priest would be considered weihs: the Germanic “holy man,” possessing the mystical powers of the Germanic poetic tradition, could kill a man or drive him mad with words alone.8  He represented the gods to the folk, and knew the secrets of maintaining the tribal rituals by which the raw divine power was invoked to respond with hailiz to the human community.  In this way, the old Germanic sacral priest-king could also be considered “set apart” from society, and thus weihs.  The rest of the people in the tribe were made “whole” or háilags, by the actions of the weiha or priest.

   Aside from those men who are weihs, there are the people who are háilags, or “made whole;” by weihs in its various forms.  In a tribe, this group should ideally include as many of the folk as is possible.  It is the duty of the weihs such as the king, priests, reeves and other authorities to ensure the háilag-ness of the folk to the best of their abilities.

   Beyond the human ambit, holiness is widely associated with places: holy steads and sacred sites were and are central to the practice of Germanic religion.  A vé in Old Norse is a holy stead, and the place where court is held.  In Gothic, a village is called weihs. Villages, towns, shires, kunja and kingdoms each surrounded a central holy site.  A village is weihs not only because it surrounds a central holy site which sanctifies it, but because the village is the weihs-center from which men go out into the fields to work at making them háilags, or fertile and fruitful.

   Holiness can also be found in objects.  Holy objects can be either weihs or háilags, and can be either naturally occurring or man made.  The wéoh, or god-image is a good example.  The paraphernalia of worship is considered weihs, and so are such things as a thors-hammer pendant, holy stones, the altar, and the holy sword.  A great, worthy sword is weihs because it is dangerous item, forged with ancient mystical smithing secrets, and which has the power and function of bringing háilag-ness.  Also weihs are the ancient sacred cult objects of the tribe which had been passed down from kings, priests and heroes of old, such as those which the Tervingi Goths carried across the Danube with them when they crossed into the Roman empire.9  As for naturally occurring weihs, it is present in such things as sun, lightning, sky, rain, stones, trees and rivers, which have wights (spirits) living in them, or higher concentrations of main.  These are some of the sources of weihs upon which all things háilags, or whole, are dependent.

   Concerning the relationship between weihs and háilags, Thorsson states that “the two concepts cannot exist without one another,” however, he does not give any evidence of why this is so.  It is clear that the existence of háilags is dependent upon weihs, because weihs is the source of háilags.  There is, however, nothing inherent in these concepts to indicate how or why weihs would be dependent upon háilags.  Neither does Thorsson give any evidence for a dependence of weihs on háilags.

   In ancient times, the survival of men depended upon them being recipients of the háilags, and the blessings of the gods were the source of that háilags.  The gods, or véar, could thus be said to fall into the category of weihs.  There is very little indication that the gods depend upon men for their survival, even though such a dubious belief seems popular amongst certain Asatrurar.  (At the most, it could be said that the memory of the gods on earth is dependent upon men).  Do the gods need the gifts of men in order to survive? Considering that the little which men can give back to the gods came from the blessings of the gods in the first place, a divine dependency upon men does not seem likely. Furthermore, between the times of modern and ancient heathenry, hundreds of years of Christianity have passed in which the gods have received hardly any worship from men. If the gods’ survival depended on our gifts, then it seems unlikely they would have survived to refound their religion among men in the 20th century.

   Or perhaps the gods depend upon men to be their army to fight against ettins at Ragnarok, as is told in the late Norse sources, and in that way, “they need us as much as we need them.”  It should be remembered that the entire Ragnarok myth is of very late Norse origin and is not evidenced among other Germanic tribes or in earlier Germanic times.  Also, since the myth can be shown to be a Christianized and dualistic reduplication of the “Battle of the Heodenings” legend, which had nothing to do with the gods, the idea that the gods depend upon men begins to seem arrogant and highly unlikely.  Thus, while it is clear that háilags is dependent upon weihs, there is in fact no compelling evidence or arguments to indicate that weihs is dependent upon háilags.

   Further, is Thorsson’s statement that “something must be *wíhaz before it is *hailagaz” actually true?  His article does not discuss things which are weihs but not háilags, and vice versa.  Does something that is weihs have to be háilags, and does something that is háilags have to be weihs?  If something were to be both weihs and háilags, it would have to be something which is both the consecrator and the consecrated.  Anything which is consecrated must have become so from contact with something else which was already possessing the power of consecration.  Certainly some things have been consecrated, and now themselves consecrate other things.  The question here, however, is if all things holy must be both consecrators and the consecrated.

   To answer the above question, perhaps it would be best to discuss a couple of examples. A Sacral King has the power to make the fields fertile.  In so doing, he is weihs, because his embodiment of mysterious divine power makes the land háilags.  He himself, however, was not always weihs: rather, at one time, he was consecrated, or installed as king and shown to the gods.  Therefore, a king, as both the consecrated, and a consecrator, is weiháilags.11

   Is this the case with all holy things, though?  What about thunder, which also hallows the fields?  Thunder obviously embodies a mysterious and sometimes dangerous divine power which is necessary in order for the crops to properly ripen, and thus thunder is unquestionably weihs.  Is thunder, however, háilags -- is it something wholesome that was once consecrated?  Not really.  It is powerful and dangerous, (not particularly wholesome qualities), even if it can bring about wholesomeness in other things.  Also, there is no evidence, either materially or in the Germanic lore that indicates there was ever such a thing as “unholy thunder;” there is no thunder wielded by the ettins or other baleful sources.  Rather, thunder is raw holy power that was always so even though itself was never consecrated.

   Another example of something weihs is the sun.  It is very powerful, and its levels of heat and light could be described as dangerous, to say the least.  Yet the heat of the sun produces the temperatures on earth required for life, and the vegetation which sustains all life on earth is built out of sunlight in the process of photosynthesis.  It destroys the freezing cold that would otherwise annihilate almost all life.  The sun, which was never consecrated, is one of the most primal sources of weihs, and it makes life on earth háilags.

   A Greek philosopher might argue that a thing cannot bestow wholesomeness unless itself first possessed wholesomeness, just as a man with no money could not give money to others.  Fortunately, the Germanic peoples did not make use of Greek logical thinking, which so often tends to outsmart itself, as our above examples demonstrate.  háilags does not need to have its origins in a pre-existing háilags; rather, háilags has its origins in weihs.  Something weihs might be able to bring about wholesomeness in other things, but this does not mean that it is wholesome within itself.  Thunder is thus weihs, but is not háilags.  We can see, therefore, that there are two categories of consecrators: those which are weiháilag, and those which are only weihs.

   The question remains, does something that is háilags but not weihs have the ability to consecrate?  The fact that one Germanic word for “consecrate” is “hallow” may suggest that háilags does have consecration powers, but the use of the word “hallow” to describe the process of consecration in Germanic languages might also have come about due to the Christian reinterpretation of the holy (see below).  We have already established, with the example of the Sacral King, that something which has been consecrated can itself become a consecrator.  However, once something that has been made holy begins to consecrate other things, it graduates to the type of holiness embodying the more central divine origin, and is thus referred to as weihs.

   An example is the “idol” or graven images of gods which were made by the Germanic peoples, and called wéohhas in Anglo-Saxon.  The image begins as a piece of wood from a tree, perhaps from a sacred grove and therefore already considered to posses special powers.  The wood is cut in a customary way according to mystical principles, perhaps accompanied by special chants or galdors, designed for the purpose.  Then the piece of wood is consecrated: it is made holy by being formed into the shape of a god.  The image is then ritually installed on the altar, and the divine power is invoked so that the god may use the image as a “seat” during the ritual times, when he descends from heaven to the sacred grove.  The god’s presence in the image is the final stage of consecration which makes the image holy.  The image is, however, not merely something to be blessed and made fruitful, but rather, it is consecrated so that it may be the seat of divine power from which a god blesses his people and their land.  It thus becomes a wéoh because it has an active, rather than passive role in the consecration process.

   In Gothic, the earliest recorded Germanic language (mid 4th century), the distinction between weihs and háilags is more pronounced, no doubt due to the fact that translation of the bible into Gothic took place while the Goths and their religious conceptions were still heathen.  As a result, more archaic heathen concepts can be seen in Gothic than in the later Germanic languages.12  In Gothic, the term used to denote consecration was weihan -- “to sanctify,” or weihnan -- “become holy, be hallowed.”  The verb forms of Gothic háilags were hailjan -- “to heal,” and hailnjan, become well, be healed, whole.” háilags  referred only to that which was consecrated, or made whole, and was not used to describe either the source or process of consecration.   This clearly demonstrates the importance of the differences between weihs and háilags.

   In many later Germanic languages, the old heathen concept of weihs was falling out of use and being replaced with háilags.  In Anglo-Saxon and Old Saxon, which post-date Gothic by several hundred years, the use of weihs has narrowed in scope.  For example in Anglo-Saxon, weihs survives only in wéofod: altar, wíg: idol, strife, battle.  Hal still means whole, but the meaning of halor has been mutated to mean salvation.14  Haligan retains its original meaning “to heal,” but now halignes denotes sanctity, a holy place, a sanctuary, a holy thing, a relic, and sacred rites, where such things were previously called weihs.

   It might be argued that because Anglo-Saxon is not directly descended from Gothic, and developed in a much different and far away land among tribes who were only distantly related to the Goths, the use of the verbs weihan and halgian could be merely tribal peculiarities to the east and west Germanic peoples respectively.  However, the several hundred year gap between Gothic and the West Germanic languages, in which few traces of intermediate Germanic languages survive, and in which Christianity was regularly practiced by Germanic peoples, is too large not to assume that Christianity had changed the Germanic concept of the holy within that time period.

   While weihs did not survive in Modern English (accept perhaps as vie: to strive, through French envier), it did survive in other modern Germanic languages.  In Icelandic, “holy” is also only heilagur, and a consecrator is only a helgar, or halgari; however, “hallow” and “consecrate” are both helga and vigja.  A “consecratory” is sem lytur ath helgun etha vigslu: both halgian and weihan.  This seems to indicate that in the Christianized Norse lands the old heathen concept of the holy might have been preserved to some degree along side that of the new Christian viewpoint.  It is clear, though, that vigja is still secondary to helga in importance, as would be expected in a Christian society.

   Weihs also survives in modern German with much of its original meaning intact:  German weihen, “consecrate, sanctify, ordain.” Heil is “well being, salvation, whole, savior, heal,” and heiligkeit is “sanctity.”  Weihs enjoys continued use in such words as weihrauch, “incense,” and weihwasser, “holy water,” where its original meaning as the source of consecration is preserved.

   One way to trace changes in the concept of the holy in Germanic tribes is to look at the lord’s prayer in various Germanic languages to see if weihs or háilags is used.  The line “hallowed be thy name” gives us a good opportunity to observe the changes.  As might be expected, the Gothic version preserves weihs: “...weihnai namo thein....”  While some of the other early and/or east Germanic related versions of the prayer retained weihs, all later Germanic versions of the prayer accept the Old Saxon call “the lord’s” name not weihs, but háilags.  Further, all versions of the prayer in modern Germanic languages use háilags exclusively.  This reflects how the Germanic view of the holy changed after exposure to Christianity.  To the early Christian Goths, then, “the lord’s” name embodied the nature of a god, and the power of the divine was present within the name itself; thus it had to be surrounded by taboo.  The name of the god could be used to invoke the god and bless something, making it holy, but it could not be casually spoken or bandied about carelessly, lest the god be offended and his wrath invoked.  The Gothic use of weihs to describe a god-name, and the taboo which this implies is exactly the way in which Germanic heathen viewed the names of their gods.18

   On the other hand, “the lord’s” name to the long Christianized Germanic peoples was no longer a mysterious divine power which had to be treated with care, but rather, was merely a spiritual comfort that nobody actually understood or really truly believed in, that was subordinated to the needs of the individual.  It was merely a vehicle for the more self centered conception of nurturing halignes.  After all, halignes had also come to mean “salvation,” in the Christian sense.  The use of háilags to describe a god-name is not in keeping with Germanic heathen religious conceptions, but instead reflects a Christian way of thinking.

   This change in the conception of holiness reflects the de-spiritualization of the Germanic peoples.  By adopting Christianity and abandoning their old heathen faith, the Germans were abandoning weihs, or the real divinity, for the false divinity of the foreign Christian pantheon.  No longer was the divinity itself important or understood in Christianity; all that mattered was its effect on the individual.  With the true divine abandoned and no longer responding, the true nature of the divine was no longer visible to men.  The divine was therefore only seen in terms of “what it could do for you,” in other words, the supposed “halignes” of good feelings in life arising from self-delusion, and supposed salvation at the time of death.

   The importance of weihs, and the distinction between weihs and háilags are very important both on the level of their primal manifestations, and in terms of human involvement with the two aspects of the holy.  According to Thorsson, the object of "magic" is to "...reach into the *wíhaz realm with a form that is intelligible to it that it may respond with hailiz -- holiness -- in some form."  From a religious, rather than magical perspective, a Theodsman might instead say that “it is the object of the Wéofodthane or priest, and his ritual workings, to reach into the weihs realm with a form that is intelligible to it that it may respond with háilags.”

   Now, in modern heathenry, or at least in Théodism, the old Germanic two-sided concept of the holy is being revived along with the old gods and traditions.  Concerning the distinction between weihs and háilags, Gárman Lord is most certainly correct when he says “the difference seems so crucial that if we didn’t already have words for such a distinction, we’d have to invent some anyway; it’s all quite necessary to everything we do.”  It could even be said that the proper practice of heathenry is dependent upon understanding these two distinct aspects of the holy, and how they work together in a single process.  “The bridging of the gap between the world of *wíh- and the mundane world is the true purpose of religion...” It is important that modern heathen set aside the Christianized concept of the holy as a single force, separated from the true nature of the divine, and instead understand the true spiritual reality of weihs and háilags."

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*
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Black Panther

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Sat Oct 03, 2015 8:08 pm

Your knowledge of Seidr is inexhaustible and there is a general thirst for it, so I suggest expansion.

My rune-postings here happened during the Jupiter-Sun conjunction in Virgo. I take the conjunction of the Sun with a 10 degree orb. It was a seethingly invigorating time.

Nietzsche speaks of the need for festivals. I suggest we take this suggestion and make it real.

I propose - or have instated in my mind, a festival-cyclus that is determined by the Suns conjunctions with Jupiter - they will last 21 days (a little under 21 degrees, given no retrograde), the middle on is the precise conjunction and the high feast.

All the 21 days must be attributed a symbol and a name. But they must be named on the days themselves. I propose that we do this here on this forum.


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Awake
shake dreams from your hair my sweet one
choose the day, the days divinity,
first thing you see...


Here is a calendar of the central dates of the next four festivals. As they approach, we will fill them in with their proper information to prepare for the sanctifying act of naming the 21 days, so that holy days may recur under those names indefinitely.  


TEMPORUM IOVIS

2016
Sunday - September 25
september 15 to october 5

2017
Thursday - October 26
october 16 to november 5

2018
Sunday - November 25
november 15 to december 5

2019
Friday - December 27  
december 17 to januari 6




Ansuz
Thrice thrice hail

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Sat Oct 03, 2015 10:14 pm

Quote :
I take the conjunction of the Sun with a 10 degree orb. It was a seethingly invigorating time.

Well what do you know. I thought I was the only one who thinks the conjunction of the Sun with a 10 degree orb is a seethingly invigorating time.

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Sat Oct 03, 2015 10:35 pm

One of these four dates is something of a devils birthday.

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Sat Oct 03, 2015 11:31 pm

Zoot Allures wrote:
Quote :
I take the conjunction of the Sun with a 10 degree orb. It was a seethingly invigorating time.

Well what do you know. I thought I was the only one who thinks the conjunction of the Sun with a 10 degree orb is a seethingly invigorating time.


You ought to learn some manners before the altar young man.
They call me "citizen cane".

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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Sun Oct 04, 2015 12:21 am

Zoot Allures wrote:
Quote :
I take the conjunction of the Sun with a 10 degree orb. It was a seethingly invigorating time.

Well what do you know. I thought I was the only one who thinks the conjunction of the Sun with a 10 degree orb is a seethingly invigorating time.


Never knew 100 percent tonality (or 0 percent understanding) could make me laugh so hard.
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PostSubject: Re: Paganism and natural order. Sun Oct 04, 2015 12:24 pm

The bastard is funny, no doubt about that. And "seething" was inviting the jokes. The ones who have investment in this thread will understand its reference.

In any case. I am determined to create a religion of cycles, a ring to cohere man under, and a religion can only be carried by those who communicate with subtler things than semantic hermeticism.

It is in a sense a reconfiguration of being through altering the way in which time binds our notions of culture and self together.



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