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OhFortunae

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PostSubject: Language parsing Sun Mar 02, 2014 1:22 pm

A topic about parsing words, phrases, symbols, origins, synonyms and links.
As long as it has to do with language.
With it, i would like to include, the Volksaard (national character) of a people, a specie, an ethnic.


Time and time again people seek to manipulate the use of language for their own purposes, but language follows reality, and not vice-versa, words do not follow the desires of men.
Negroid, negro, African, black, African-American, dark, coloured etc., and many that will come, the reality is,
the change in definition does not change the reality of its existance, its essence, its very being.
The newly introduced word will soon have the same meaning as of its former usage - reality.


We have a saying in the Netherlands: Soort zoekt soort.
Soort = specie / kind / breed / genre; Zoekt = search (for) / seeks / looks (for); Soort.
It says enough.


A commonly used Dutch word: Rasecht.
Ras = race / specie / breed; Echt = real, existing, no denial.
As real as the existance of races.


Dronkenlap / Zatlap

Dronken = drunk / have drunk  Lap = cloth / piece / Lap (a people in north Scandinavia, the Laplanders / Sámi)
Zat = enough / drunk / satiate / sat

The Lap people are notorious for being in a drunk state throughout the years, ever since they had encountered with the Germanics
and were forced to assimilate (and yet being excluded). I see them as a pre-Europoid people.
Mongoloids and Caucasians have a common ancestor and split around 43.000 years ago - With the Sámi having developed to a ''in between''. Thus the mongoloid characteristic to be more sensitive for alcohol intoxication.
Interestingly, they have a Berber/Iberian bloodline.



-The Volksaard of the Dutch, i would say, and many non-Dutch persons i have spoken with about the Dutch who in an instance noticed the same: stubborn.
The Dutch fought an 80 years war / revolt against Spain, they did not agree with the Catholic submission and created their own Christian church.
-Throughout history, they would not want to give up their land and built primative terpen, starting 2500 years ago, and eventually, developed the most advanced sea-protecting mechanisms, man has ever known. The story of the province Flevoland is an interesting one.
-During WW2, although the Dutch were in small numbers, they send in the most troops to fight at the eastern-front, in comparison with other occupied countries. The largest part of the Atlantic defense line was built mainly by the Dutch.
-During the 1960's, Dutch modern ''intellectuals'' rewrote the Catholic catechism which would set the new ''Vaticanum 2'' principles.
It became a world wide influence, the self destruction of the RCC.
-The Dutch were the first to legalise same sex ''marriages'', being stubborn against the past and reality?

Anyway, this national character might have been abused these last 70 years or so - the reverse to reality,
since the authority is the only thing to oppose to these days, might happen soon enough.

Another national characteris of the Dutch would be honesty, to be on time and patience.
Honesty, i mean, talking openly, speaking - how manimalistic the person might be, your mind.
To be on time, it is simply seen as respect..
Patience, as in the 80 years war - and acknowledged by others, as by Baltasar Gracián.



How about submission as it presents itself.
Islam = submission, the very meaning of it.
I have read a while ago, that the European population which has the most ''Islam renouncing'' people, are the Dutch.
The Dutch bloodline, are mainly, that of the Salian Franks. T
he very Franks who were an important fundament of today's France (Frank-rijk) and the historical fighting against the Moors,
but that does not explain their Catholic stability..
Maybe it was a missing trigger - i find Catholicism more desirable if one has to choose between it and Protestantism/Reformed church.



Something interesting
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The Dutch stereotype by our neighbouring countries is greed, especially in Flemish Belgium and non-Whites living in the Netherlands.
Since the Dutch give the most money to the ''good causes'' and to the U.N., and the E.U., and development aid (compared to other European countries) - and such crap, i would not say greed - frugality.

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1984 - Newspeak Appendix


''Newspeak was the official language of Oceania, and had been devised to meet the ideological needs of Ingsoc, or English Socialism. In the year 1984 there was not as yet anyone who used Newspeak as his sole means of communication, either in speech or writing. The leading articles of the Times were written in it, but this was a tour de force which could only be carried out by a specialist, It was expected that Newspeak would have finally superseded Oldspeak (or standard English, as we should call it) by about the year 2050. Meanwhile, it gained ground steadily, all party members tending to use Newspeak words and grammatical constructions more and more in their everyday speech. The version in 1984, and embodied in the Ninth and Tenth Editions of Newspeak dictionary, was a provisional one, and contained many superfluous words and archaic formations which were due to be suppressed later. It is with the final, perfected version, as embodied in the Eleventh Edition of the dictionary, that we are concerned here.

The purpose of Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of expression for the world-view and mental habits proper to the devotees of IngSoc, but to make all other modes of thought impossible. It was intended that when Newspeak had been adopted once and for all and Oldspeak forgotten, a heretical thought -- that is, a thought diverging from the principles of IngSoc -- should be literally unthinkable, at least so far as thought is dependent on words. Its vocabulary was so constructed as to give exact and often very subtle expression  to every meaning that a Party member could properly wish to express, while excluding all other meaning and also the possibility of arriving at them by indirect methods. This was done partly by the invention of new words, but chiefly by eliminating undesirable words and stripping such words as remained of unorthodox meanings, and so far as possible of all secondary meaning whatever.

To give a single example - The word free still existed in Newspeak, but could only be used in such statements as "The dog is free from lice" or "This field is free from weeds." It could not be used in its old sense of "politically free" or "intellectually free," since political and intellectual freedom no longer existed even as concepts, and were therefore of necessity nameless. Quite apart from the suppression of definitely heretical words, reduction of vocabulary was regarded as an end in itself, and no word that could be dispenses with was allowed to survive. Newspeak was designed not to extend but to diminish the range of thought, and this purpose was indirectly assisted by cutting the choice of words down to a minimum. Newspeak was founded on the English language as we now know it, though many Newspeak sentences, even when not containing newly created words, would be barely intelligible to an English-speaker of our own day. Newspeak words were divided into three distinct classes, known as the A vocabulary, the B vocabulary, and the C vocabulary. It would be simpler to discuss each class separately, but the grammatical peculiarities of the language can be dealt with in the section devoted to the A vocabulary, since the same rules held good for all three categories.



The A vocabulary.

The A vocabulary consisted of words needed for the business of everyday life --- For such things as eating, drinking, working, putting on one's clothes, going up and down stairs, riding in vehicles, gardening, cooking, and the like. It was composed almost entirely of words that we already possess -- words like hit, run, dog, tree, sugar, house, field -- but in comparison with the present-day English vocabulary, their number was extremely small, while their meanings were far more rigidly defined. All ambiguities and shades of meaning had been purged out of them. So far as it could be achieved, a Newspeak word of this class was simply a staccato sound expressing one clearly understood concept. It would have been quite impossible to use the A vocabulary for literary purposes or for political or philosophical discussion. It was intended only to express simple, purposive thoughts, usually involving concrete objects or physical actions.

The grammar of Newspeak has two outstanding peculiarities. The first of these was an almost complete interchangeability between different parts of speech. Any word in the language (in principle this applied even to very abstract words such as if or when) could be used either as verb, noun, adjective, or adverb. Between the verb and noun form, when of the same root, there was never any variation, this rule of itself involving the destruction of many archaic forms. The word thought, for example, did not exist in Newspeak. Its place was taken by think, which did duty for both noun and verb. No etymological principle was involved here; in some cases it was the original noun that was chosen for retention, in other cases the verb. Even where a noun and a verb of kindred meanings were not etymologically connected, one or other of them was frequently suppressed. There was, for example, no such word as cut, its meaning being sufficiently covered by the noun-verb knife. Adjectives were formed by adding the suffix -ful to the noun verb, and adverbs by adding -wise. Thus, for example, speedful meant "rapid" and speedwise meant "quickly."  Certain of our present-day adjectives, such as good, strong, big, black, soft, were retained, but their total number was very small. There was little need for them, since almost any adjectival meaning could be arrived at by adding -ful to a noun-verb. None of the now-existing adverbs was retained, except for a few already ending in -wise; the -wise termination was invariable. the word well, for example, was replaced by goodwise.

In addition, any word -- this again applied in principle to every word in the language -- could be negative by adding the affix un-, or could be strengthened by the affix plus-, or, for still greater emphasis doubleplus-. Thus, for example, uncold meant "warm" while pluscold and doublepluscold meant, respectively, "very cold" and "superlatively cold". It was also possible, as in present-day English, to modify the meaning of almost any word by prepositional affixes such as ante-, post-, up-, down-, etc. By such methods it was possible to bring about an enormous diminution of vocabulary. Given, for instance, the word good, there was no need for such a word as bad, since the required meaning was equally well --indeed better-- expressed by ungood. All that was necessary, in any case where two words formed a natural pair of opposites, was to decide which of them to suppress. Dark, for example, could be replaced by Unlight, or light by undark, according to preference.

The second distinguishing mark of Newspeak grammar was its regularity. Subject to a few exceptions which are mentioned below, all inflections followed the same rules. Thus in all verbs the preterite and the past participle were the same and ended in -ed. The preterite of steal was stealed, the preterite of think was thinked, and so on throughout the language, all such forms as swam, gave, brought, spoke, taken, etc., being abolished. All plurals were made by adding -s or -es as the case might be. The plurals of man, ox, life, were mans, oxes, lifes. Comparison of adjectives was invariably made by adding -er, -est (good, gooder, goodest), irregular forms and the more, most formation being suppressed.

The only classes of words that were still allowed to inflect irregularly were the pronouns, the relatives, the demonstrative adjectives, and the auxiliary verbs. All of these followed their ancient usage, except that whom had been scrapped as unnecessary, and the shall, should tenses had been dropped, all their uses being covered by will and would. There were also certain irregularities in word-formation arising out of the need for rapid and easy speech. A word which was difficult to utter, or was liable to be incorrectly heard, was held to be ipso facto a bad word: occasionally therefore, for the sake of euphony, extra letters were inserted into a word or an archaic formation was retained. But this need made itself felt chiefly in connexion with the B vocabulary. Why so great an importance was attached to ease of pronunciation will be made clear later in this essay.



The B vocabulary.

The B vocabulary consisted of words which had been deliberately constructed for political purposes: words, that is to say, which not only had in every case a political implication, but were intended to impose a desirable mental attitude upon the person using them. Without a full understanding of the principles of Ingsoc it was difficult to use these words correctly. In some cases they could be translated into Oldspeak, or even into words taken from the A vocabulary, but this usually demanded a long paraphrase and always involved the loss of certain overtones. The B words were a sort of verbal shorthand, often packing whole ranges of ideas into a few syllables, and at the same time more accurate and forcible than ordinary language.

The B words were in all cases compound words.

They consisted of two or more words, or portions of words, welded together in an easily pronounceable form. The resulting amalgam was always a noun-verb, and inflected according to the ordinary rules. To take a single example: the word goodthink, meaning, very roughly, 'orthodoxy', or, if one chose to regard it as a verb, 'to think in an orthodox manner'. This inflected as follows: noun-verb, goodthink; past tense and past participle, goodthinked; present participle, goodthinking; adjective, goodthinkful; adverb, goodthinkwise; verbal noun, goodthinker.

The B words were not constructed on any etymological plan. The words of which they were made up could be any parts of speech, and could be placed in any order and mutilated in any way which made them easy to pronounce while indicating their derivation. In the word crimethink (thoughtcrime), for instance, the think came second, whereas in thinkpol (Thought Police) it came first, and in the latter word police had lost its second syllable. Because of the great difficulty in securing euphony, irregular formations were commoner in the B vocabulary than in the A vocabulary. For example, the adjective forms of Minitrue, Minipax, and Miniluv were, respectively, Minitruthful, Minipeaceful, and Minilovely, simply because -trueful,-paxful, and -loveful were slightly awkward to pronounce. In principle, however, all B words could inflect, and all inflected in exactly the same way.

Some of the B words had highly subtilized meanings, barely intelligible to anyone who had not mastered the language as a whole. Consider, for example, such a typical sentence from a Times leading article as Oldthinkers unbellyfeel Ingsoc. The shortest rendering that one could make of this in Oldspeak would be: 'Those whose ideas were formed before the Revolution cannot have a full emotional understanding of the principles of English Socialism.' But this is not an adequate translation. To begin with, in order to grasp the full meaning of the Newspeak sentence quoted above, one would have to have a clear idea of what is meant by Ingsoc. And in addition, only a person thoroughly grounded in Ingsoc could appreciate the full force of the word bellyfeel, which implied a blind, enthusiastic acceptance difficult to imagine today; or of the word oldthink, which was inextricably mixed up with the idea of wickedness and decadence. But the special function of certain Newspeak words, of which oldthink was one, was not so much to express meanings as to destroy them. These words, necessarily few in number, had had their meanings extended until they contained within themselves whole batteries of words which, as they were sufficiently covered by a single comprehensive term, could now be scrapped and forgotten. The greatest difficulty facing the compilers of the Newspeak Dictionary was not to invent new words, but, having invented them, to make sure what they meant: to make sure, that is to say, what ranges of words they cancelled by their existence.

* Compound words such as speakwrite, were of course to be found in the A vocabulary, but these were merely convenient abbreviations and had no special ideological colour.

As we have already seen in the case of the word free, words which had once borne a heretical meaning were sometimes retained for the sake of convenience, but only with the undesirable meanings purged out of them. Countless other words such as honour, justice, morality, internationalism, democracy, science, and religion had simply ceased to exist. A few blanket words covered them, and, in covering them, abolished them. All words grouping themselves round the concepts of liberty and equality, for instance, were contained in the single word crimethink, while all words grouping themselves round the concepts of objectivity and rationalism were contained in the single word oldthink. Greater precision would have been dangerous. What was required in a Party member was an outlook similar to that of the ancient Hebrew who knew, without knowing much else, that all nations other than his own worshipped 'false gods'. He did not need to know that these gods were called Baal, Osiris, Moloch, Ashtaroth, and the like: probably the less he knew about them the better for his orthodoxy. He knew Jehovah and the commandments of Jehovah: he knew, therefore, that all gods with other names or other attributes were false gods. In somewhat the same way, the party member knew what constituted right conduct, and in exceedingly vague, generalized terms he knew what kinds of departure from it were possible. His sexual life, for example, was entirely regulated by the two Newspeak words sexcrime (sexual immorality) and goodsex (chastity). Sexcrime covered all sexual misdeeds whatever. It covered fornication, adultery, homosexuality, and other perversions, and, in addition, normal intercourse practised for its own sake. There was no need to enumerate them separately, since they were all equally culpable, and, in principle, all punishable by death. In the C vocabulary, which consisted of scientific and technical words, it might be necessary to give specialized names to certain sexual aberrations, but the ordinary citizen had no need of them. He knew what was meant by goodsex -- that is to say, normal intercourse between man and wife, for the sole purpose of begetting children, and without physical pleasure on the part of the woman: all else was sexcrime. In Newspeak it was seldom possible to follow a heretical thought further than the perception that it was heretical: beyond that point the necessary words were nonexistent.

No word in the B vocabulary was ideologically neutral. A great many were euphemisms. Such words, for instance, as joycamp (forced-labour camp) or Minipax (Ministry of Peace, i. e. Ministry of War) meant almost the exact opposite of what they appeared to mean. Some words, on the other hand, displayed a frank and contemptuous understanding of the real nature of Oceanic society. An example was prolefeed, meaning the rubbishy entertainment and spurious news which the Party handed out to the masses. Other words, again, were ambivalent, having the connotation 'good' when applied to the Party and 'bad' when applied to its enemies. But in addition there were great numbers of words which at first sight appeared to be mere abbreviations and which derived their ideological colour not from their meaning, but from their structure.

So far as it could be contrived, everything that had or might have political significance of any kind was fitted into the B vocabulary. The name of every organization, or body of people, or doctrine, or country, or institution, or public building, was invariably cut down into the familiar shape; that is, a single easily pronounced word with the smallest number of syllables that would preserve the original derivation. In the Ministry of Truth, for example, the Records Department, in which Winston Smith worked, was called Recdep, the Fiction Department was called Ficdep, the Teleprogrammes Department was called Teledep, and so on. This was not done solely with the object of saving time. Even in the early decades of the twentieth century, telescoped words and phrases had been one of the characteristic features of political language; and it had been noticed that the tendency to use abbreviations of this kind was most marked in totalitarian countries and totalitarian organizations. Examples were such words as Nazi, Gestapo, Comintern, Inprecorr, Agitprop. In the beginning the practice had been adopted as it were instinctively, but in Newspeak it was used with a conscious purpose. It was perceived that in thus abbreviating a name one narrowed and subtly altered its meaning, by cutting out most of the associations that would otherwise cling to it.

The words Communist International, for instance, call up a composite picture of universal human brotherhood, red flags, barricades, Karl Marx, and the Paris Commune. The word Comintern, on the other hand, suggests merely a tightly-knit organization and a well-defined body of doctrine. It refers to something almost as easily recognized, and as limited in purpose, as a chair or a table. Comintern is a word that can be uttered almost without taking thought, whereas Communist International is a phrase over which one is obliged to linger at least momentarily. In the same way, the associations called up by a word like Minitrue are fewer and more controllable than those called up by Ministry of Truth. This accounted not only for the habit of abbreviating whenever possible, but also for the almost exaggerated care that was taken to make every word easily pronounceable.

In Newspeak, euphony outweighed every consideration other than exactitude of meaning. Regularity of grammar was always sacrificed to it when it seemed necessary. And rightly so, since what was required, above all for political purposes, was short clipped words of unmistakable meaning which could be uttered rapidly and which roused the minimum of echoes in the speaker's mind. The words of the B vocabulary even gained in force from the fact that nearly all of them were very much alike. Almost invariably these words -- goodthink, Minipax, prolefeed, sexcrime, joycamp, Ingsoc, bellyfeel, thinkpol, and countless others -- were words of two or three syllables, with the stress distributed equally between the first syllable and the last. The use of them encouraged a gabbling style of speech, at once staccato and monotonous. And this was exactly what was aimed at. The intention was to make speech, and especially speech on any subject not ideologically neutral, as nearly as possible independent of consciousness.

For the purposes of everyday life it was no doubt necessary, or sometimes necessary, to reflect before speaking, but a Party member called upon to make a political or ethical judgment should be able to spray forth the correct opinions as automatically as a machine gun spraying forth bullets. His training fitted him to do this, the language gave him an almost foolproof instrument, and the texture of the words, with their harsh sound and a certain willful ugliness which was in accord with the spirit of Ingsoc, assisted the process still further.

So did the fact of having very few words to choose from. Relative to our own, the Newspeak vocabulary was tiny, and new ways of reducing it were constantly being devised. Newspeak, indeed, differed from most all other languages in that its vocabulary grew smaller instead of larger every year. Each reduction was a gain, since the smaller the area of choice, the smaller the temptation to take thought. Ultimately it was hoped to make articulate speech issue from the larynx without involving the higher brain centers at all. This aim was frankly admitted in the Newspeak word duckspeak, meaning ' to quack like a duck'. Like various other words in the B vocabulary, duckspeak was ambivalent in meaning. Provided that the opinions which were quacked out were orthodox ones, it implied nothing but praise, and when The Times referred to one of the orators of the Party as a doubleplusgood duckspeaker it was paying a warm and valued compliment.


The C vocabulary.

The C vocabulary was supplementary to the others and consisted entirely of scientific and technical terms. These resembled the scientific terms in use today, and were constructed from the same roots, but the usual care was taken to define them rigidly and strip them of undesirable meanings. They followed the same grammatical rules as the words in the other two vocabularies. Very few of the C words had any currency either in everyday speech or in political speech. Any scientific worker or technician could find all the words he needed in the list devoted to his own speciality, but he seldom had more than a smattering of the words occurring in the other lists. Only a very few words were common to all lists, and there was no vocabulary expressing the function of Science as a habit of mind, or a method of thought, irrespective of its particular branches. There was, indeed, no word for 'Science', any meaning that it could possibly bear being already sufficiently covered by the word Ingsoc.

From the foregoing account it will be seen that in Newspeak the expression of unorthodox opinions, above a very low level, was well-nigh impossible. It was of course possible to utter heresies of a very crude kind, a species of blasphemy.

It would have been possible, for example, to say Big Brother is ungood. But this statement, which to an orthodox ear merely conveyed a self-evident absurdity, could not have been sustained by reasoned argument, because the necessary words were not available. Ideas inimical to Ingsoc could only be entertained in a vague wordless form, and could only be named in very broad terms which lumped together and condemned whole groups of heresies without defining them in doing so. One could, in fact, only use Newspeak for unorthodox purposes by illegitimately translating some of the words back into Oldspeak. For example, All mans are equal was a possible Newspeak sentence, but only in the same sense in which All men are red-haired is a possible Oldspeak sentence.

It did not contain a grammatical error, but it expressed a palpable untruth-i.e. that all men are of equal size, weight, or strength. The concept of political equality no longer existed, and this secondary meaning had accordingly been purged out of the word equal. In 1984, when Oldspeak was still the normal means of communication, the danger theoretically existed that in using Newspeak words one might remember their original meanings. In practice it was not difficult for any person well grounded in doublethink to avoid doing this, but within a couple of generations even the possibility of such a lapse would have vanished. A person growing up with Newspeak as his sole language would no more know that equal had once had the secondary meaning of 'politically equal', or that free had once meant 'intellectually free', than for instance, a person who had never heard of chess would be aware of the secondary meanings attaching to queen and rook. There would be many crimes and errors which it would be beyond his power to commit, simply because they were nameless and therefore unimaginable. And it was to be foreseen that with the passage of time the distinguishing characteristics of Newspeak would become more and more pronounced -- its words growing fewer and fewer, their meanings more and more rigid, and the chance of putting them to improper uses always diminishing.

When Oldspeak had been once and for all superseded, the last link with the past would have been severed. History had already been rewritten, but fragments of the literature of the past survived here and there, imperfectly censored, and so long as one retained one's knowledge of Oldspeak it was possible to read them. In the future such fragments, even if they chanced to survive, would be unintelligible and untranslatable. It was impossible to translate any passage of Oldspeak into Newspeak unless it either referred to some technical process or some very simple everyday action, or was already orthodox(goodthinkful would be the Newspeak expression) in tendency. In practice this meant that no book written before approximately 1960 could be translated as a whole. Pre-revolutionary literature could only be subjected to ideological translation -- that is, alteration in sense as well as language. Take for example the well-known passage from the Declaration of Independence:


We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men, deriving their powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of those ends, it is the right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government. . .


It would have been quite impossible to render this into Newspeak while keeping to the sense of the original. The nearest one could come to doing so would be to swallow the whole passage up in the single word crimethink. A full translation could only be an ideological translation, whereby Jefferson's words would be changed into a panegyric on absolute government.

A good deal of the literature of the past was, indeed, already being transformed in this way. Considerations of prestige made it desirable to preserve the memory of certain historical figures, while at the same time bringing their achievements into line with the philosophy of Ingsoc. Various writers, such as Shakespeare, Milton, Swift, Byron, Dickens, and some others were therefore in process of translation: when the task had been completed, their original writings, with all else that survived of the literature of the past, would be destroyed. These translations were a slow and difficult business, and it was not expected that they would be finished before the first or second decade of the twenty-first century. There were also large quantities of merely utilitarian literature -- indispensable technical manuals, and the like -- that had to be treated in the same way. It was chiefly in order to allow time for the preliminary work of translation that the final adoption of Newspeak had been fixed for so late a date as 2050.''


                                                                                                                                                                         -George Orwell




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OhFortunae

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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Sun Mar 02, 2014 1:51 pm

Quote :
HYPOTHESIS OF PHONOLOGICAL/SEMANTIC EQUIVALENCE

The hypothesis relates speech, gesture and perception. It treats phonetic symbolism as a manifestation of the natural foundation of language in the functioning of the human brain and body. The hypothesis is first presented as a series of assertions. This is followed by explanation of some of the terms used. Detailed development of one aspect of the hypothesis in the form of a systematic schema of the relation between speech-elements and gesture-elements is reserved for a separate chapter. Discussion is also reserved to a later chapter of some of the objections and difficulties that may occur to the reader since these can be considered more satisfactorily when both the broad outline and the detailed content of the hypothesis have been set out.
MAIN PROPOSITIONS

The main propositions which form the hypothesis are listed below. The underlining of some phrases refers forward to the explanation which follows later for the particular terms:

A. Associated with the speaking of every word is a specific invariant pattern of brain organisation. This is the pattern subserving the form and timing of the articulatory processes involved in the speaking of the word;

B. The pattern thus associated with the speaking of a word is not simply derived from the articulatory process. It is prior to the articulatory process and has a special relationship to the meaning of the word.

C. This special relationship between the pattern for a word and its meaning can have different forms depending on the category of word involved:

- the simplest case is for words referring to the human body, to parts of it or to actions referable to the human body. In this case, the pattern underlying the word is typically the product of the state of brain organisation that accompanies movement of the part of the body involved, indication of that part e.g. by pointing or more generally that accompanies awareness of that part of the body or of a specific body feeling;

- in this most straightforward case, the relation between the articulatory pattern for the word and the pattern of brain organisation for movement of the part of the body referred to exists because the brain is a single organ which operates integrally. A movement of a part of the body modifies the set of the rest of the body, including the articulatory organs and muscles;

- there is similarly usually a specific, non-arbitrary relation between words referring to acts of perception (hearing, seeing) and the particular percept which is the meaning of a particular word. So the hearing of a sound produces a pattern of brain organisation which is transposed into an articulatory process producing a word naming the particular sound;

- the relation of the word for a seen object and the character of the object is less clear (because a seen object may have a number of distinctive features) but there is normally a specific relation similar to that for the relation between a word and a sound to which it refers.

It is posited that the seeing of a particular object produces a specific brain pattern characteristic of the object (the pattern involved in recognition of the object) and that this pattern of visual perception in turn leads to a specific word - a specific articulatory sequence. The brain pattern associated with the particular perceived object takes the form of a modification of the optic component of the body-image: the body-image being a stable, general, internally-perceived pattern by which the individual locates and demarcates himself, internally and externally in the environment. It could be said that the specific word linked to a specific seen object is constituted by a modulation of the pattern in the brain constituting the body-image;

D. In any single language there must be broad consistency between the words forming the language i.e. there must be compatibility and sufficient distinctness between the words, This need for coherence between words in a language stems again from the integral operation of the brain - words modify and demarcate each other;

E. On the other hand, the hypothesis does not lead to the view that there should be a universally appropriate word for every distinct object or referent:

- the perceived object varies to a considerable extent according to time and place

- and in a given context the distinctive feature of a particular object may be different from the distinctive feature in another context;

- there is a non-negligible variation in physical make-up and specifically in the organs of articulation from race to race, Even small physical variations in the organs of articulation (or general physical structure) will involve differences in the associated motor patterns in the brain and so differences in the articulatory sequences associated with particular brain patterns i.e. a different word will result;

- where for the reasons given words for particular percepts differ from one language to another, there will necessarily be changes in other words because the brain operates integrally and changes are required in other words to maintain the overall compatibility and distinctness of the aggregate of words in a particular language;

- so differences in vocabulary between languages result partly from a process of 'seeding' (as in crystallisation). The patterns in the brain and in the articulatory process associated with a number of elementary words go towards determining the complete character of a language and lead to extensive divergence between words in different languages for the same objects, perceptions, actions, feelings;

F. Nevertheless different languages have the same natural foundation in the relation between the brain pattern subserving the speaking of a word and the pattern associated with a particular object, or action. Words in other languages associated with particular objects, perceptions, actions, feelings can be readily associated with those objects &c by speakers of a different language The ability to learn a foreign language is a result of this shared natural foundation and the observed phenomena of cross-linguistic phonetic symbolism find their explanation in this way;

G. Where resemblances are observed between vocabulary in different languages, these are not necessarily an indication that the languages are related by descent or have a similar vocabulary as a result of diffusion. The resemblances may be the result of a natural appearance of similar words for similar perceptions by physically similar people in similar circumstances;

H. Between what are taken to be related languages, the picture of lexical relationships is a complex one. Divergences can develop from an originally common language as a result of the use of a few different words which lead to widespread compensatory modifications of the individual descendant languages in order to maintain the coherence and compatibility of the total vocabulary. Scattered or chance modifications at one or other point in the language, particularly for common objects or actions, will tend to lead to systematically related changes elsewhere in the language i.e. changes of the type observed in the Indo-European sound-shifts. Systematic differences between descendant languages are another manifestation of the integral functioning of the brain in the production of language;

I. The learning of words by a child is a natural process which is 'seeded' by the form of the elementary words that it first hears. The child is naturally programmed to develop a consistent language of some kind but the environment determines which language this should be. The child is essentially given clues as to the kind of language it should develop and the language is not simply learnt but unfolds in the child;

J. The final step in the hypothesis is that, if each word is the product of a specific patterning of the brain and has a relation to the whole bodily set reflected in the brain, then the speaking of the word involves a reflection of the specific patterning in every aspect of the state and activity of the body at the time the word is spoken. Facial expression, muscular tensions, bodily movement accompanying a word - and specifically the characteristic bodily movement observed as gesture - express the patterning inherent in the word;

- So natural gesture accompanying a word is homologous with the word spoken. The movement of the hands and arms in natural gesture is coherent with and derives from the patterning of the brain which constitutes the word and which is transformed into speech-sound through gesture of the vocal organs;

- Observation of natural gesture is thus a route for exploration of the brain patterning associated with individual words and for examination of the inter-relation of patterning between words which resemble each other in meaning or in sound;

- The speech-sound and the natural gesture are parallel expressions of a central brain-pattern associated with the meaning of a word.

Though often natural gesture is abbreviated or vestigial, in certain circumstances e.g. in emotional tension fully-developed gestures are observed and their structure can be related to the structure of individual words.

The following is a fuller explanation of some of the terms used above:

(i) SPECIFIC INVARIANT PATTERN OF BRAIN ORGANISATION

Every time we speak a word, the sound of the word is produced by a particular configuration and change over a specific time-interval of the articulatory organs -that is movements of the tongue, the vocal cords, the lips, the jaw, the chest muscles controlling expiration. As with any other voluntary bodily movement, the movements of the articulatory apparatus - the specification of the initial and final states - are controlled and precisely determined by nervous impulses transmitted to the muscles involved. This pattern of nervous impulses has to be finely co-ordinated in space and time; in principle the character of the movement of the muscles serving the articulatory apparatus is precisely specifiable in terms of the time at which each impulse is delivered, the duration of stimulation of the muscle, the spatial distribution of impulses between the various muscles, the temporal ordering of the nervous impulses between the muscles serving different articulatory organs. This pattern of nervous impulses, which produces a pattern of muscular change in the articulatory apparatus, has its origin in the central nervous system. To produce one specific sound (which requires an appropriate muscular pattern) there has to be a distinct central nervous pattern from that required to produce another specific sound, i.e. each speech-sound is associated with a prior distinct patterning in the central nervous system.

Though the neurologists are not yet in a position to specify the precise nature of the patterning of nervous impulses within the central nervous system for particular speech-sounds, the idea of such patterning as the basis for speech is reasonably well accepted. Lenneberg points out the essential identity of central nervous control of voluntary movement and speech-movements: "Motor co-ordination is driven by a rigid unalterable cycle of neurophysiological events inherent in the central nervous system. Language as any other type of behaviour is seen as a manifestation of intricate physiological processes .... The neuromuscular correlates of speech sounds are muscular contraction patterns among one and the same set of muscles .... Throughout the duration of individual speech sounds, muscles must be activated (or de-activated) at such rapid succession that a neuronal firing order must be assumed that functions with an accuracy of milliseconds. This can only be accomplished by automatisms consisting of intricate time-patterns .... It would be presumptuous to try to explain the nature of the innate events that control the operation of language. We may however assume that mechanisms are involved such as (1) the modulation of firing characteristics of nerve cells; (2) the triggering of temporal patterns in neuronal chains; (3) the modulation of oscillatory characteristics of endogenous activities; and (4) the production of spreading of disturbances."

Similarly Teuber discussing the neurological basis of speech says "We cannot begin to understand the neural basis of speech unless we begin to comprehend how spontaneous and selective movements can be initiated in the central nervous system, how they can be confined to particular configurations of neurones, and how they can be stopped in order to permit the organisation, in time, of varying motor patterns that follow upon each other". Penfield speaks about the acquisition by children of what he calls word-formation units, the image of how to speak a word "really a pattern of the motor complex required to produce the word".

(ii) INTEGRAL OPERATION OF THE BRAIN

This concept is important to the presentation of the hypothesis. It is the basis for saying that there is a relation in the brain between the pattern controlling the speaking of a word and the pattern controlling a particular voluntary movement to which the word refers, for the assertion that in any given language there is an obligation for coherence and compatibility between the words forming the language, for the proposition that in closely related languages wide differences in vocabulary can originate in and spread from changes in a few elementary words (including changes on the pattern of Grimm's law) and finally and most important for the proposition that there is a close relation or identity between central patterns of nervous organisation associated with a particular word and the central pattern responsible for natural gesture accompanying a word.

At first sight, the idea of integral operation of the brain seems a natural one which is reflected in the unity of consciousness and the unity of behaviour of the individual. On the other hand, the concept of integral action must not be confused with the older idea of holism i.e. that the brain functions as an unanalysable whole with no part having distinct functions from any other part. There is no conflict between assuming that the brain operates integrally (in the same way as any large organisation might operate as a unity) and at the same time recognising that the brain has significant internal structure and specialisation of function. For example, the cerebellum in serving the total muscular co-ordination of the body performs a function which is different from those of the rest of the brain. There is the other misapprehension which also needs to be avoided that some functions such as speech are in some sense located only in a particular part of the brain viz: Broca's area and can be separated from the rest of brain function so that the brain would be a collection of distinct organs serving speech, perception, movement and so on.

The proposition here is that speech, perception, movement, hearing are not controlled by water-tight compartments of the brain but by areas of the brain which connect with each other, interact with each other and form part of a larger continuous organisation. On this view, it would be natural to assume that perception would affect speech, speech would affect movement, movement would affect perception and so on for other distinct functions. Synaesthesia as observed is some demonstration of the likelihood of this view. So also are experiments which show interference between the process of hearing and the process of speaking (e.g. where speech is played back with a time-delay to the ear of the speaking subject). Brain in an article commenting on views of Head and Holmes discusses recognition of phonemes and words in terms of physiological phoneme-schemas and word-schemes (rather similar to the central pattern underlying words already discussed) and he comments: "A word-schema must possess links with the physiological bases of perception and thought".

Lenneberg provides a clear statement of the view here put forward: "In the brain ... there are no independent parts or autonomous accessories. In vertebrates, and probably many higher invertebrates, the entire brain is a functionally integrated system with constant, spontaneous and inherent activities that involve all healthy structure ... Any modification on the brain is a modification on the entire brain. Teuber more specifically says in referring to the question of cross-modal and supramodal learning: "If it were generally true that the different senses are hermetically sealed off against each other, it would be extremely difficult to understand the function of those large clusters of cortical and sub-cortical neurones which seem to respond to more than one kind of sensory input ... It would seem essential that there be some central mechanism for transcending the division between the different senses, for identifying an object felt with an object seen, and both with the object we can name; there should be some form of cross-modal processing resulting in supra-modal, rather than sensory categories, extracted from or imposed upon experience.

Finally Penfield commented on the relation between speech and gesture: "With severe aphasia at any time, the individual's ability to convey meaning by gesture of head or hand is lost. He may use the muscles of neck and hand for other purposes but he cannot nod assent in place of the word 'yes' nor shake his head in place of the lost word 'no'. It must be assumed then that the characteristic gestures employed by anyone to convey meaning while speaking or instead of speaking, must have neuronal units in the speech mechanism. This applies to meaningful gestures as it does to writing".

(iii) BODY-IMAGE

The body-image is introduced in the presentation of the hypothesis as a means of explaining the relation between the form of a word referring to a particular visual percept and the meaning of the word, the referent. The body-image is a stable internal perception of the form and state of the body. It contains optic components as well as somaesthetic: that is, we have a pattern of brain organisation related to the pattern of muscular tension, the postural system of the body, awareness of position and weight as well as the figure of the body. The body-image, and more specifically the postural image of the body, operates as the basis of reference by which we determine the position of individual limbs, the extent and direction of particular movements. There are closely related compensatory systems in the functioning of vision which allow perception of movement from a stable point of view.

Schilder explains: "The image of the human body means the picture of our own body which we form in our mind, that is to say the way in which the body appears to ourselves - there is the immediate experience that there is a unity of the body. We call it a schema of our body or bodily schema or, following Head who emphasises the importance of the knowledge of the position of the body, postural model of the body. The body schema is the tri-dimensional image everybody has about himself .... The postural model of the body, the knowledge of the limbs and of their relation to each other, is necessary for the start of every movement ... The perception of our own body is not very different from the perceptions of any other outside objects. Localisation is built up by optic and kinaesthetic impressions, by bringing the single impression into connection with the postural model of the body."

This explains in a preliminary way what is meant by body-image. The hypothesis goes on to suggest that particular acts of visual perception are related to the body-image in a way parallel to that in which particular movements of the body are related to the postural image. And there is the further idea implicit that since the postural image is a part of the total body-image, modification of the optic element by visual perception can be accompanied by modification of the postural state i.e. movement of the body in gesture or otherwise. This was put more clearly by Lashley who observed: "close interrelationships of visual and kinaesthetic space suggest that the perceptual processes in vision may be far more dependent upon interaction with the postural-kinaesthetic system than is ordinarily assumed ... It is not impossible that all the spatial characteristics of vision .. are dependent upon integration with the postural system. It may be that we shall have to seek the source of visual percepts in the integration of these two systems ... "

Unavoidably, the expression of what is involved becomes more difficult because one is dealing with the most complex part of brain function - the recognition of pattern and the inter-relationship of patterning drawn from different sources. Lashley emphasised the relation between the stimulus, say an event of visual perception, and the existing state: "Input is never into a quiescent or static system but always into a system which is already excited and organised. In the intact organism, behaviour is the result of interaction of this background of excitation with input from the designated stimulus .... The spatial properties of the visual stimulus are translated by integration at a series of levels into modifications of the general pattern of postural tonus".

In rather vaguer and less precisely neurological terms, Werner and Kaplan applied this sort of approach to the relation between words and their meanings:

"Objects are given form, structure and meaning through inner-dynamic schematising activity which shapes and inter-twines the sensory, postural, affective and imaginal components of the organismic state ... The organismic view that the translations of non-sonic properties into sound-patterns are based on similarities deriving from the primordial unity of the senses ... From this global unity of sound and bodily movement ... the development of the specific modalities ... of motor and of vocal reference occurs ... Phonic properties may 'synaesthetically' represent shapes ... (On looking at a particular object) the material phonemically-unique sequence (contained in the word referring to the object) is articulated into a production whose expressive features parallel those ingredient in the percept".

It may be helpful in the light of what is said above on this complex subject to set out more simply the chain of ideas which is involved in the hypothesis under examination:

(1) the visual perception of a particular object produces a particular pattern in the brain corresponding to it;

(2) the brain at the time when this pattern is produced is not in a neutral state but in a dynamic state which results from the representation in the brain of the body-image, including the postural image i.e. in mental terms our current awareness of our own state;

(3) the pattern produced in the brain by the perception of the particular object interacts with the patterning already existing in the brain i.e. it interacts with the body-image and the postural image;

(4) changes in the body-image and the postural image produce changes in bodily behaviour. The activation of the articulatory organs to produce a particular word is one consequence of the modification of the body-image and the postural image (which is the expression of total muscular set);

(5) but expression in observable change in behaviour of the change in the brain-patterning following perception of a particular object is not limited to the making of a sound - a word. It can also be observed in changes in the positions of the limbs (or in facial expression) and in gesture;

(6) So - seeing a particular object can produce in parallel a word uniquely referring to the object and a gesture associated with the object and with the word.

(iv) VARIATION OF THE PERCEIVED OBJECT

If there was a direct and invariable relation between the perception of an object and the word formed to refer to the object, then one would expect that in all languages the same words would be used for the same objects. But this is obviously not the case. There are a number of reasons why there should be different words in different languages (as outlined in the presentation of the hypothesis) but one important reason is that between languages, between nations and between cultures, the words which are usually translated to mean the same object do not in fact refer to the same object -or a different feature of an object is chosen as distinctive in one culture from the distinctive feature chosen in another culture.

Taking a familiar object such as a CHAIR, in every dictionary of foreign languages into English, one will find foreign words which are translated by the English CHAIR. But one must examine the word CHAIR as referring not to an object defined by its function i.e. something to sit on, but an object which is taken in by a specific act of perception. If there is a relation between the percept CHAIR and the word CHAIR as Werner and Kaplan argue, then the form of the word depends on the form of the percept. If one collected together from different countries the perceived objects for which words translated by CHAIR in English are used, there obviously would be extremely wide differences in the physical structure and appearance. In some cultures, a Chair is an exotic piece of furniture - or a ceremonial object. The Chair of STP. Peter is not necessarily much like the common English idea of a chair. A chair to a Japanese is a strange European structure.

If the percepts, which are classified by the dictionaries as chairs, vary widely in form then the pattern in the brain on perceiving them will also vary widely - and it would not be at all surprising if in different languages the words associated with the percept CHAIR should also vary widely.

This may seem to be labouring the obvious - but it is a temptation to say that it should be easy to construct a list of words which have a clear and uniform reference in different languages - natural objects - trees, flowers, animals, the wind and the sea. But trees for example obviously differ widely between localities. The trees familiar in Australia or America are not necessarily at all in shape or appearance like trees familiar in Europe. The word TREE in Europe refers to a collection of objects which resemble each other within certain limits - the concept has so to say a centre of gravity, an average quality of treeness located at a particular point. In other countries and other continents, the average shape and appearance of trees is likely to be more or less far removed from the average European concept of tree and accordingly foreign words for TREE will differ from English or European words if the form of the word varies in parallel with the form of the tree.

This kind of analysis can be extended indefinitely. The problem becomes to find concepts or percepts which remain constant or nearly constant between widely separated countries and races. It is only on the basis of such constant concepts and percepts that one can usefully examine what sort of relationship exists between the objects referred to and the structure of the sounds - of the words - used to refer to them in different languages.

(v) NON-NEGLIGIBLE VARIATION IN PHYSICAL MAKE-UP

The sounds which go to form words are produced by changes in the shape and position of the articulatory organs and interaction of the specific pattern of the articulatory organs with the flow of air moving from the lungs as a result of changes in the chest-muscles controlling expiration. It is obvious that differences in physical make-up between those speaking the same language can result in very wide differences in the character of speech. At the most obvious, the difference between men's voices and women's voices is the result of differences in the dimensions of the vocal cords; but there are other differences beyond this. Malformations of the articulatory organs can produce generalised differences in speech, lisping, thick speech and so on It is more difficult for some people to pronounce particular sounds than for speakers of the language generally. There may be physiological differences underlying dialectal differences.

Now if one assumes that the brain-pattern for the speech-sequence - the word - used to refer to a particular percept or action is related to the particular act of perception or particular other action, the brain pattern can only take effect through the structure of the articulatory organs as they exist in the individual. A person whose tongue is paralysed will produce a different sound from one who speaks normally, even though in both cases the idea of the word to be produced is the same. So if between races there are significant differences in the structure or shape of the articulatory organs, one would expect this to lead to differences in the sound sequences produced - in the words following on from similar brain-patterns related to the meanings of the words to be used. Beyond this it is conceivable that in addition to variations in physical conformation of the speech-organs between races, there may also be genetically-determined differences in the central nervous structures - the accepted observation is that even between persons of the same race, each brain differs substantially from the next in fine structure and functional organisation. It would not be surprising if between widely separated races, there were systematic differences in the brain structures subserving speech and other functions.

However, for the time being, the question is how far there are significant differences between races in the organs involved in speech. These organs are the tongue, the lips, the teeth, the palate or roof of the mouth, the nose, the glottis, the vocal cords, the lungs and chest muscles. It is obvious that there are wide differences between races in facial conformation. So the lips of Africans have a different conformation from those of Europeans or Chinese; the noses of Chinese and Japanese are different from those of Africans or Europeans. The bodily characteristics of the different races vary widely and it would not be surprising, indeed it is to be expected, that there should be differences in the internal conformation of the speech organs, in the shape of the palate, in the dimensions of the tongue, possibly even in the detailed musculature of the different organs. At the minimum, differences of these kinds would be likely to lead to preferences for use of a different range of sounds by the different races - but the hypothesis presented goes further than this. It suggests that even if the process of perception is the same between the different races, differences in the structure and functioning of the speech-organs between races would mean that the same central brain pattern associated with a percept would have a different translation in terms of the articulatory sequence flowing from it i.e. quite naturally and inevitably different races would tend to produce different words for the same objects

To make somewhat more concrete the ideas here, it may be useful to recall that speech is produced by a precise and complex control of sequences and extents of muscular contractions altering the shape and position of the vocal organs. Lenneberg says: "We cannot state exactly the number of muscles that are necessary for speech and that are active during speech. But if we consider that ordinarily the muscles of the thoracic and abdominal walls, the neck and face, the larynx, the pharynx, and the oral cavity are all properly co-ordinated during the act of speaking, it becomes obvious that over 100 muscles must be controlled centrally. ... the rate at which individual muscular events occur (contraction or relaxation) (throughout the speech apparatus) is of an order of magnitude of several hundred events every second".

Given this order of complexity in the relation between central nervous control and the articulatory system, it would be surprising if there were not systematic racial genetic differences in the articulatory system of an importance at least equal to the obvious differences in the appearance of the different races. Very small changes in mode of articulation even in a single language are required to change one sound into another e.g. P into B and differences between races in articulatory organisation could be expected to produce substantial differences in the speech-sounds used.

Brosnahan studied the role of genetic factors in the development of sound systems and this led him to consider racial differences in the vocal apparatus. He recalled that it is traditional in the textbooks to emphasise the basic similarity in the vocal apparatuses of all human beings: "In the stressing of this fact of similarity, however, the no less observable fact of differences in the vocal apparatuses has tended to be neglected There is basic similarity but by no means identity of form and structure". He quotes from the literature on differences between races. So differences in lip shape also include differences in the distinct muscles available for controlling lip-shape; one muscle which is found in 75 to 80% of Europeans and 80 to 100% of Chinese and Malays is not found at all in 80% of Australian aborigines or 40% of Africans.

The differences in the tongue between races are even more striking. One study found that the average length of tongue varied widely between Japanese and Negroes; the extreme range found was from 55 millimetres in Japanese to 123 millimetres in Negroes, i.e. the tongues of the negroes were more than twice as long as those of the Japanese. Such a great difference, given the importance of the tongue in articulation, is bound to lead to considerable differences in the articulatory processes of the two races, and so one would not be surprised to find great differences between the words used for similar objects.

In relation to the larynx, large differences are found as regards the possession of certain muscles - 86% of Germans have them, 80% of Japanese do not The form of the crico-thyroid muscle which influences the tension of the vocal cords shows large racial differences; the form of the muscle which is possessed by 82% of Hottentots is not found at all amongst Europeans and only amongst 8% of Japanese. Brosnahan goes on to refer to the neurological evidence for individual genetic variation of structures in the cortex from which the muscular activities in speech appear to be controlled -and one might draw the further deduction that if differences with a genetic base between individuals are discernible, then it is very likely that there should also be broad patterns of difference between races in the brain structures controlling articulation - from which again differences between languages would flow.

The conclusion reached is that to explain differences between languages, there are ample physiological sources of difference which, coupled with the differences between the percepts named in different languages, can go far to explain the existence of distinct languages without relying on the traditional explanation of difference, that is the development of different conventions of language in different societies. In brief, there is ample natural variation available to explain the multiplicity of languages.


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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Sun Mar 30, 2014 1:22 pm

The Oera Linda.

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Quote :

TEX FRYAS (p. 11/12 original manuscript) point 3:
MEN NE TOF NAVT TIL MAN JO BÉDEN HETH
Modern versions of this word may very well be: BIDDEN (Dutch) meaning to pray BIEDEN (Dutch) meaning to offer BITTEN (German) meaning to ask BJUDA / BEDJA (Swedish) meaning to ask, invite, request
This is why I think BEDRUM does not need to mean exactly the same as the modern English word BEDROOM. In Dutch I would translate it -close to the original word- with BIDRUIMTE, a room for meditation, as we would say today.

Now I found something to support my idea that "BEDRUM" originally may have meant oratory (praying- or offering-room):

In "Frieslands Oudheid" (Frisian Antiquity), dr. H. Halbertsma (2000; eds. Cordfunke, Sarfati); p.168;
Referring to a fragment from "Vita Landeberti" (Leven des salighen martelers ende busscops sinte Lambrechtz), about st. Lambert of Maastricht who lived in the 7th century:

"He put off his sword, withdrew in his room, the dormitory (sleep-chamber) that he also used as a oratory (praying-chapel), and streched down arms-wide on the floor, praying for mercy for himself as well as for his enemies." (my translation)

Original text:
"Hij legde zijn zwaard af, trok zich terug in zijn kamer, het slaapvertrek dat hij tevens als bidkapel gebruikte en strekte zich met wijd-gespreide armen uit over de vloer, genade biddende voor zichzelf zowel als zijn vijanden."


       
Quote :
Hatred found its way among them.
       They each bore twelve sons and twelve daughters—
       at every Juul-time a couple.
       Thence come all mankind.

       Lyda was black, with hair curled like a lamb's;
       her eyes shone like stars,
       and shot out glances like those of a bird of prey.
       Finda was yellow, and her hair was like the mane of a horse.
       She could not bend a tree,
       but where Lyda killed one lion
       she killed ten.
       Frya was white like the snow at sunrise,
       and the blue of her eyes
       vied with the rainbow.

This is discredited 19th century race typology when the world was split into three races: "Mongoloids" (yellow), "Negroids" (black) and "Caucasoids" (white).

"Hatred" for "od" was a mistranslation, much discussed since first publication and in this thread.
Ottema related it to Latin "odium", but it makes more sense to relate it to nordic words like Norse "odd" (peak, point, phallic object) or German "odem" (gods breath, life force), as Over de Linden suggested.

Since you probably never had a look at the original language, here is a simplified transcription with improvised translation of the first part:

[006/29]
WR.ALDA.S OD TRAD TO RA BINNA.
AND NW BARDON EK TWILIF SVNA AND TWILIF TOGETHERA.
EK JOL.TID TWÉN.
THÉROF SEND ALLE MANNESKA KÉMEN.
Wralda´s entered them,
and now each gave birth to twelve sons and twelve daughters,
each Yuletime twins.
Thereof all people have come.

[007/01]
LYDA WAS SWART. KROL.HÉRED ALSA THA LOMERA.
LIK. STARA BLONKON HJRA OGON.
JA THES GIRFUGELS BLIKKAR WÉRON VNMODICH BY HJRA.S.
[007/30]
FINDA. WAS GÉL AND HJR HÉR SA THA MANNA ÉNER HORS.
ÉNE THRÉ NE KV HJA NAVT NI BUGJA.
MEN HWÉR LYDA ANNEN LAVWA MACHT TO DÉJANDE
THÉR DADE HJA. WEL TJAN.
[009/18]
FRYA WAS WIT LIK SNÉI BY.T MORNE.RAD
AND THAT BLAW HJRAR OGNUM.
WN.ET JETA THÉRE RÉINBOGE OF.

That the idea of three root races was popular (again?) in the 19th century, and that this concept got discredited later, are no good arguments against OLB´s authenticity.

The following fragment demonstrates a vision of peaceful co-existence and co-operation between the races:

[141/04]
FINDA.S FOLK SKIL SINA FINDINGRIKHÉD TO MÉMA NITHA WENDA.
THAT LYDA.S FOLK SINA KRAFTA AND WI VSA WISDOM.
THA SKILUN THA FALXA PRESTERA WÉI FAGATH WERTHA FON JRTHA.
[...] THÉR NE SKILUN NÉNE ORA MASTERA NACH FORSTA NER BASA NAVT NÉSA
AS THÉRA THÉR BI MÉNA WILLE KÉREN SEND.

Translation Sandbach (p.191):
Finda's folk shall contribute their industry to the common good,
Lyda's folk their strength, and we our wisdom.
Then the false priests shall be swept away from the earth.
[...] There shall be neither princes, nor masters, nor rulers,
except those chosen by the general voice.

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In Dutch, Norske, German, the orignal text of course and some other languages, some translations are also in English:
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Quote :

TEX. FRYA.S.
HELD BÉID THA FRYA.
TO THA LESTA SKILUN HJA MY HWITHER.SJA.
THACH THÉRA ALLÉNA MÉI IK AS FRY KANNA
THÉR NÉN SLAF IS FON ÉN OTHER NI FON SINE TOCHTA.
~ HIR IS MIN RÉD. ~

Frya's tex (tekst, testament).
Heil wacht de vrijen.
Uiteindelijk zullen zij mij weerzien.
Doch die alleen beschouw ik als vrij
die geen slaaf is van een ander noch van zijn tochten (gedachten).
~ Hier is mijn raad. ~

Frya's tex (text, testament).
Health (prosperity, welfare) awaits the free.
At the end they will see me again.
Though them only can I see as free
who is neither a slave to another nor to his thoughts.
~ Here is my counsel. ~

(1.) SAHWERSA THJU NÉD ARG SY.
AND GODE RÉD AND GODE DÉD NAWET MAR NE FORMUGE
HROP THAN THI GAST WR.ALDAS AN.
MEN J NE MOT.IM NAVT ANHROPA BIFARA ALLE THINGA PRVVATH SEND.
THA IK SEGZ TO JO MITH RÉDENE AND TID SKIL.ET WARA
THA MODELASA SKILUN AMMAR SWIKA VNDER HJARA AJN LÉD.

1. Wanneer de nood hoog is,
en goede raad en goede daad niets meer vermogen,
roep dan Wralda's geest aan.
Maar u moet hem niet aanroepen, voordat alle dingen beproefd zijn.
Doch ik zeg u met redenen, en tijd zal het leren:
De moedelozen zullen immer bezwijken onder hun eigen leed. [21]

1. When in dire distress,
and when good advice and good deeds avail to nothing,
then call on Wralda's ghost (spirit).
but do not call him before all things are tried out.
For I tell you with reasons, and time will prove it:
the dispirited will collapse under their own sorrow.

2. WR.ALDAS GAST MÉI MAN ALLÉNA KNIBUWGJANDE TANK TOWIA.
JA THRJU WARA. FAR HWAT JV FON HIM NOTEN HAVE
FAR HWAT JV NITH AND FARA HAPE
THÉR HY JO LÉT AN ANGA TIDA.

2. Alleen Wralda's geest mag men knielend danken,
ja driemaal: voor wat u van hem genoten heeft,
voor wat u geniet en voor de hoop,
die hij u laat in enge tijden.

2. Only Wralda's ghost may be thanked kneeling,
yes thrice fold: for what you have received earlier,
for what you enjoy now, and for the hope
he will give in time of need.

3. J HAWED SJAN HO RING IK HELPE LÉNDE.
DVA AL ÉN MITH JO NÉSTON.
MEN NE TOF NAVT TIL MAN {12} JO BÉDEN HETH.
THA LYDANDE SKOLDE JO FLOKA
MIN FAMNA SKOLDUN JVWA NAMA UFFAGA UT.AT BOK
AND IK SKOLDE JO LIK VNBIKANNADE OFWISA MOTA.

3. U heeft gezien, hoe snel ik hulp verleende.
Doe evenzo met uw naasten,
maar niet voordat men u gevraagd heeft;
de lijdende zou u vervloeken,
mijn fammen zouden uw naam uitvagen uit het boek
en ik zou u als een onbekende moeten afwijzen.

3. You have seen how quickly I provided assistance.
Do likewise to your neighbour,
but not until one has asked you.
The suffering would curse you,
my fams would erase your name from the book,
and I would have to reject you as a stranger.

4. NIM NAMMAR KNI.BUWGJANDE TANK FON.JV NÉSTON AN.
THJUS AGATH WRALDA.S GAST.
NID SKOLDE J BIKRJUPA. WISDOM SKOLDE J BILAKA
AND MIN FAMNA SKOLDON JO BITIDZA FON FADERRAV.

4. Neem nimmer van uw naaste kniebuigende dank aan.
Deze komt Wralda's geest toe.
Nijd zou u bekruipen, wijsheid zou u belachen,
en mijn fammen zouden u betichten van vaderroof.

4. Never accept kneeling-thanks from your neighbour.
That is for Wralda’s ghost only.
Envy would assail you, Wisdom would ridicule you,
and my fams would accuse you of fathertheft.

5. FJUWER THINGA SEND TO JVWE NOT JÉVEN.
MITH NAMA. LOFT. WÉTER. LAND AND FJUR.
MEN WR.ALDA WIL THÉR ALLÉNA BISITTAR OF WÉSA.

5. Vier dingen zijn u tot nut gegeven,
met name lucht, water, land en vuur.
Maar alleen Wralda zal daarvan bezitter zijn.

5. Four things are given for your needs,
namely air, water, land, and fire.
but only Wralda will be possessor thereof.

THÉRVMBE RÉD IK JO.
J SKILUN JO RJUCHTFÉRDIGA MANNA KIASA.
THAM THJU ARBÉD AND THA FRUCHDA NÉI RJUCHTA DÉLA.
SA THAT NAMMAN FRY FON WARKA NI FON WÉRA SY.

Daarom raad ik u aan:
U moet zich rechtvaardige mannen kiezen,
die de arbeid en vruchten (vreugdes) eerlijk verdelen,
zodat niemand vrij zal zijn van werken noch van weren.

Therefore I advise you,
you shall choose upright men,
who will fairly divide the labour and the fruits (pleasures),
so that no man is exempt from working nor from defending.

6. SAHWERSA THÉR AMMAN AMONG JO FVNDEN WARTH
THÉR SIN AJN FRYDOM VRSELLATH.
THAM N.IS NAVT FON JVW FOLK.
HI IS EN HORNING MITH BASTERD BLOD.

6. Wanneer er iemand onder u gevonden wordt,
die zijn eigen vrijheid verkoopt,
die is niet van uw volk,
hij is een hoerning met bastaardbloed.

6. Should anyone be found amongst you
who would sell his freedom,
he is not of your kind,
he is a whoreson with bastardblood.


IK RÉDE JO THAT J HIM AND SIN MAM TO THAT LAND UT.DRIVA
SÉGZ THAT TO JVWA BARN.
THES MORNES. THES MIDDÉIS AND THES ÉWENDES
TILTHJU HJA THÉROF DRAME THES NACHTIS.

Ik raad u aan, om hem en zijn ma het land uit te drijven.
Zeg dat tot uw kinderen
's-morgens, 's-middags en 's-avonds,
opdat ze er 's-nachts van dromen.

I advise you to drive him and his mom out of the land.
Tell this to your children,
in the morning, at noon and in the evening,
until they dream of it at night.


7. ALLERA MANNALIK THÉR EN OTHER FON SINE FRYDOM BIRAW
AL WÉRE THENE ORE HIM SKELDECH
MOT IK ANDA BARN.TAM ÉNER SLAFINE FARA LÉTA.

7. Alleman die een ander van zijn vrijheid berooft,
al was de ander hem schuldig,
die moet ik aan de kinderleiband van een slavin laten voeren.

7. Anyone who would rob another of his freedom,
even if the other is his debtor,
I must lead him on a child's leash of a slavegirl.

THACH IK RÉDE JO VMBE SIN LIK AND THAT SINERA MAM
VPP.ÉNE KALE STÉD TO VRBARNANDE.
AFTERNÉI {13} HJARA ASKE FIFTICH FIT ANDA GRVND TO DALVANE
TILHJU THÉR NÉNEN GARS.HALM VP WAXA NI MÉI.
HWAND ALDULKERA GARS SKOLDE JVW DJAROSTA KVIK DÉJA.

ik raad u echter aan om zijn lijk en dat van zijn ma
op een kale plek te verbranden.
Daarna hun as vijftig voet in de grond te begraven,
opdat daar geen grashalm op kan groeien.
want dergelijk gras zou uw dierbaarste vee doden.

I advise you though to burn his corpse and that of his mom
in an arid place,
and bury their ashes fifty feet below the ground,
so that no grass blade may grow up there.
For such grass would kill your dearest animals.

8. NE GRIP NA THAT FOLK FON LYDA NER FON FINDA AN.
WR.ALDA SKOLDE HELPA HJAM.
SA THAT.AT WELD THAT FON JO UT.GONG
VPPA JVWA AJNA HAVEDA SKOLDE WITHER KVMA.

8. Val niet het volk van Lyda noch van Finda aan.
Wralda zou hen helpen,
zodat het geweld dat van u uitging,
op uw eigen hoofden zou weerkomen. [23]

8. Do not attack the people of Lyda, nor of Finda.
Wralda would help them,
so that any violence that goes out from you
would return on your own heads.

9. SAHWERSA THAT MACHTE BÉRA
THAT HJA FON JUWE RÉD JEFTA AWET OWERS WILDE
ALSA AGHAT J TO HELPANE HJAM.
MEN KVMATH HJA TO RAWANDE
FAL THAN VPPA THAM NITHER LIK BLIXENANDE FJVR.

9. Wanneer het mocht gebeuren,
dat zij raad of iets anders van u wilden,
dan dient u hen te helpen.
Maar komen zij om te roven,
val dan op hen neer als bliksemend vuur.

9. If it would happen
that they want advice or something else from you,
then you ought to help them.
But if they come robbing,
then fall down upon them like lightning fire.

10. SAHWERSA ANNEN FON HJAM
ÉNER JVWER TOGHATERUM TO WIF GÉRTH AND HJU THAT WIL.
THAN SKILUN J HJA HJRA DVMHÉD BITJVTHA
THACH WIL HJU TOCH HJRA FRÉJAR FOLGJA
THAT HJA THAN MITH FRÉTHO GA.

10. Wanneer een van hen
een van uw dochters tot vrouw begeert, en zij dat wil,
dan zult u haar op haar domheid wijzen.
Doch wil zij toch haar vrager (vrijer) volgen,
mogen ze dan met vrede gaan.

10. Should one of them
desire one of your daughters as wife, and she wants that,
then you shall explain her dumbness to her.
But if she still wants to follow her asker,
then let them go with peace.

11. WILLATH JVW SVNA FON HJARA TOGHATERUM
SA MOT J ALSA DVA AS MITH JVWA TOGHATERUM.
THACH HOR THA ÉNA NOR THA OTHERA MÉI WITHER KVMA.
HWAND HJA SKOLDUN UTHÉMEDA SÉDA AND PLÉGA MITH.FARA.
AND DRÉI THESSA BY JO HELDGAD WRDE
MÉI IK NAVT LONGER OVIR JO WAKA.

11. Willen uw zonen van hun dochters,
dan moet u evenzo doen als met uw dochter.
Maar noch de een, noch de ander mag weerkomen.
want ze zouden uitheemse zeden en plegen meevoeren,
en zodra deze bij u geheiligd worden,
kan ik niet langer over u waken.

11. If your sons want from their daughters,
you must do the same as with your daughter;
but neither the one nor the other may come back,
for they would introduce foreign morals and habits,
and when these are hallowed by you,
I may no longer watch over you.

12. VPPA MINRE FAM FASTA HAV IK MIN HAP FASTEGTH.
THÉRVMBE MOST J HJA TO JO ÉRE. {14} MODER NÉMA.
FOLGATH J MIN RÉD THAN SKIL HJU NÉMELS MIN FAM BILIWA
AND ALLA FRANA FAMNA THÉR HJA FOLGJA.
THAN SKIL THJU FODDIK NAMER UTGA
THÉR IK FAR JO VPSTOKEN HAV.

12. Op mijn fam Fasta heb ik al mijn hoop gevestigd.
Daarom moet u haar tot uw eremoeder nemen.
Volgt u mijn raad, dan zal zij namaals mijn fam blijven
en alle vrone fammen die haar volgen.
Dan zal de foddik nimmer uitgaan,
die ik voor u opgestoken heb.

12. Upon my fam Fasta I have placed all my hopes.
Therefore you must take her as your mother-of-honor.
If you follow my advice, she will hereafter remain my fam,
and all dedicated fams who follow her.
Then the foddik which I have lighted for you,
will never be extinguished.

THAT LJUCHT THÉRA. SKIL THAN ÉVG JVWE BRYN VPKLARJA.
AND J SKILUN THAN ÉVIN FRY BILYVA FON VNFRYA WELD
AS JVWA SWITE RINSTRAMA
FON THAT SALTE WÉTER THÉR ANDELASE SÉ.

Het licht daarvan zal dan eeuwig uw brein opklaren,
en u zult dan even vrij blijven van onvrije macht,
als uw zoete reinstromen
van het zoute water der eindeloze zee.

Then its light shall always clear up your brain,
and you shall remain as free from unfree domination
as your sweet (fresh) rainstreams
from the salt water of the endless sea.

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Quote :
6e. English
This is the most impossible translation of the whole OLB.

For this English translation some use was made of the one by Alewyn Raubenheimer (2011), which was based on the one by Sandbach (1876). I chose to not translate the terms that Rika's argument is about (as well as some other ones) and typed them in capitals.

I know it's bad english, but my purpose is to seduce the reader to read the original language as much as possible.

Too much gets lost in any translation.

From Rika's letter, Sandbach's translation is also given in italic script.

{168/20}
MINE NOM IS BÉDEN.
HACH.GANA HIS SVN.
KONE.RÉD MIN ÉM IS NIMMER BOSTIGJATH
AND ALSA BERNLAS STURVEN.
MY HETH MAN IN SIN STÉD KOREN.

My name is Beden,
son of Hachgana.
Konered, my uncle, was never married,
and thus died childless.
One has elected me in his place.

A.DEL THENE THREDDE KANING FON THJUSE NOME
HETH THJU KÉSE GOD KÉRTH
MITES IK HIM AS MINA MASTRE BIKENNA WILDE.

Adel, the third king of that name,
approved of the choice,
provided I should acknowledge him as my master.

BUTA THAT FVLLE ERV MINRE ÉM
HETH.ER MI EN ÉLE PLEK GRVND JÉVEN
THAT AN MINA ERVA PALADE.
VNDER FARWÉRDE
THAT IK THÉR.VP SKOLDE MANNISKA STALLA
THÉR SINA LJUDA NINMERTHE SKOLDE ...

In addition to the entire property of my uncle,
he has given me a whole place of ground
that bordered my property,
under condition
that I would settle people there
who would never ... his people

[pages 169 to 188 are missing]


{189}
... THÉRVMBE WIL IK THET HIR-NE STED FORJUNE. ~

... therefore I will allow that a place here.


BRÉF FON RIKA THJU ALD.FAM.
VPSÉID TO STAVEREN BY.T JOL.FÉRSTE.
Letter from Rika the elder-FAM (matron),
read at Staveren at the JOL-feast

Letter of Rika the Oudmaagd, read at Staveren at the Juul Feast.

JY ALLE HWAM HIS ÉTHLA MITH FRISO HIR KÉMON.
MIN ÉR.BIDNESSE TO JO.
ALSA JY MÉNE SEND JY VNSKELDICH AN OFGODJE.
THÉR NIL IK JVD NAVT VR SPRÉKA.
MEN JVD WIL IK JO VPPEN LEK WISA
THAT FÉ BÉTRE SI. ~

You all whose forefathers came here with Friso,
my honour-offering to you.
You think you are not guilty of idolatry.
I will not speak about that now,
but today I will point out a failing
that is few better.

My greeting to all of you whose forefathers came here with Friso.
According to what you say, you are not guilty of idolatry.
I will not speak about that now, but will at once mention a failing which is very little better.

JY WÉTATH JEFTHA JY NÉTATH NAVT.
HO WR.ALDA THUSAND GLOR.NOMA HETH.
THACH THAT WÉTHATH JY ALLE.
THAT HY WARTH AL.FÉDER HÉTEN.
UT ÉRSÉKE THAT ALLES IN UT IM WARTH AND WAXTH
TO FÉDING SINRA SKEPSELA.

You know, or you do not know,
how Wralda has a thousand glorynames.
You all do know, however,
that he is named AL-FÉDER (all-feeder, universal provider),
because that all becomes and grows from him
for the FÉDING (feeding, sustenance) of his creatures.

You know, or you do not know, how many titles Wr-alda has; but you all know that he is named universal provider,
because that everything comes and proceeds from him for the sustenance of his creatures.

T.IS WÉR THAT JRTHA
WARTH BIHWILA AK AL.FÉDSTRE HÉTEN.
THRVCHDAM HJU ALLE FRUCHD AND NOCHTA BÉRTH
HWERMITHA MANNISK AND DJAR HJARA SELVA FÉDE.
THACH NE SKOLDE HJU NÉNE FRUCHD NER NOCHT NAVT NE BÉRA
BIDAM WRALDA HJA NÉNE KREFTA NE JEF.

It is true that JRTHA (Earth)
is also sometimes named AL-FÉDSTRE (all-feederess),
because she brings forth all the FRUCHD (fruits, pleasures) and NOCHTA (nuts/ grains, joys)
with which men and animals FÉDE (feed) themselves;
but she would not bear any FRUCHD nor NOCHT
when Wralda gave her no powers.

It is true that Irtha is named sometimes the feeder of all, because she brings forth all the fruits and grains on which men and beasts are fed;
but she would not bear any fruit or grain unless Wr-alda gave her the power.

AK WIVA THER HJARA BERN MAMA LÉTA AN HJARA BROSTA
WERTHAT FÉDSTRA HÉTEN.
THA NE JÉF WR.ALDA THÉR NÉN MELOK IN
SA NE SKOLDON THA BERN THÉR NÉNE BATE BY FINDA.
SA THAT BI SLOT FON REKNONG
WR.ALDA ALLÉNA FÉDER BILIWET. ~

Also wives who let their children MAMA (breastfeed) on their breasts
are named FÉDSTRA (feederesses, fosters, nurses),
but if Wralda gave no milk there-in,
then the children would find no benefit there-by;
so that, by end of counting,
Wralda alone stays FÉDER (feeder).

Women who nourish their children at their breasts are called nurses, but if Wr-alda did not give them milk the children would find no advantage;
so that, in short, Wr-alda really is the nourisher.

THAT JRTHA BYHWILA WARTH AL.FÉDSTRE HETEN
AND ÉNE MAM FÉDSTRE
KAN JETA THRVCH.NE WENDE.
MEN THAT.NE MAN HIM LÉT FÉDER HÉTE
VMBE THAT.ER TAT SI.
THAT STRID WITH.AJEN ALLE {190} RÉDNUM.

That JRTHA (Earth) sometimes is named AL-FÉDSTRE (all-feederess),
and a MAM (breastfeeding mama) FÉDSTRE (feederess),
can yet go through a curve (is acceptable);
but that a man has himself be named FÉDER (feeder, father),
because he is a TAT (dad, father),
that struggles with all reason.

That Irtha should be called the universal nourisher, and that a mother should be called a feeder, one can understand, figuratively speaking;
but that a father should be called a feeder, because he is a father, goes against all reason.

THA IK WÉT WANAT THJUS DWÉSHÉD WÉI KVMTH.
HARK HIR. SE KVMTH FON VSA LÉTHA.
AND SAHWERSA THI FOLGATH WERTHE
SA SKILUN JY THÉRTHRVCH SLAVONA WERTHA
TO SMERT FON FRYA
AND JOWE HAG.MOD TO.NE STRAF. ~

But I know whence this folly comes.
Hear here. It comes from our enemies;
and if this is followed,
then you shall become slaves there-through (because of it),
to the sorrow of Frya
and to the punishment of your HAG-MOD (high-mood, haughtiness, pride).

Now I know whence all this folly comes. Listen to me.
It comes from our enemies; and if this is followed up you will become slaves, to the sorrow of Frya and to the punishment of your pride.

IK SKIL JO MELDA
HO T. BI THA SLAVONA FOLKAR TO GVNGEN IS.
THÉR AFTER MÉI JY LÉRA. ~
THA POPPA KANINGGAR
THAM NÉI WILKÉR LÉVA
STÉKATH WRALDA NÉI THÉRE KRONE.
UT NID THAT WR.ALDA AL.FÉDER HÉT.
SA WILDON HJA FÉDRUM THÉRA FOLKAR HÉTA. ~

I will tell you
how it went with the SLAVONA FOLKAR (slave people);
from that you may learn.
The foreign kings,
who live  by (their own) will-choice,
desire Wralda's crown.
From envy that Wralda is named the AL-FÉDER (all-feeder, all-father),
they wish to be named FÉDRUM (feeders, fathers) of the FOLKAR (peoples).

I will tell you what happened to the slave people; from that you may take warning.
The foreign kings, who follow their own will, place Wr-alda below the crown.
From envy that Wr-alda is called the universal father, they wish also to be called fathers of the people.

NW WÉT ALLERA MANNALIK
THAT.NE KÉNING NAVT OVIR.NE WAXDOM NE WELTH
AND THAT.IM SIN FÉDING
THRVCH THAT FOLK BROCHT WARTH. ~
MEN THACH WILDON HJA FVLHERDJA
BY HJARA FORMÉTENHÉD. ~

Now, all men (everybody) knows
that a king does not rule over WAXDOM (the productiveness of the earth);
and that his FÉDING (food, feeding)
is brought to him by the FOLK (people).
But still they wanted to persist
in their arrogance.

Now, everybody knows that kings do not regulate the productiveness of the earth;
and that they have their sustenance by means of the people, but still they will persist in their arrogance.

TILTHJU HJA TO.RA DOL KVMA MACHTE
ALSA HAVON HJA THET FORMA NAVT FVLDÉN WÉST
MITH THA FRYA JEFTA
MEN HAVON HJA THAT FOLK ÉNE TINS VPLÉID.
FORI THENE SKAT THAM THÉROF KÉM
HÉRADON HJA VRLANDISKA SALT.ATHA .
THAM HJA IN.OM HJARA HOVA LÉIDON.

In order to come to their goal
they have from the beginning not been satisfied
with the free (voluntary) gifts,
but imposed a tax upon the FOLK (people).
With the treasure that came there-of,
they hired overlandish (foreign) SALT.ATHA (salt-allies, soldiers),
whom they retained about their courts.

In order to attain their object they were not satisfied from the beginning with free gifts, but imposed a tax upon the people.
With the tax thus raised they hired foreign soldiers, whom they retained about their courts.

FORTH NAMON HJA ALSA FÉLO WIVA AS.RA LUSTE.
AND THA LITHIGA FORSTA AND HÉRA DÉDON AL.ÉN. ~
AS TWIST AND TVISPALT AFTERNÉI
INNA HUSHALDNE GLUPTE
AND THÉRVR KLACHTA KÉMON
THA HAVON HJA SÉID.

Furthermore they took as many wives as they lusted,
and the little FORSTA (kings, firsts) and HÉRA (lords, gentry) did the same (all one).
When afterwards quarrels and disputes
sneaked in the households,
and complaints came of it,
then they have said:

Afterwards they took as many wives as they pleased, and the smaller princes and gentry did the same.
When, in consequence, quarrels and disputes arose in the households, and complaints were made about it, they said

JAHWEDER MAN IS THENE FÉDER FON SIN HUSHALDEN
THÉRVMBE SKIL.ER AK BAS AND RJUCHTER {191} OVIR WÉSA.
THA KÉM WIL.KÉR
AND ÉVIN AS THAM MITHA MANNUM INOVIR THA HUSHALDNE WELDE
GVNG.ER MITH THA KANINGGAR INOVIR HJARA STAT AND FOLKAR DVAN.

Every man is the FÉDER (feeder, father) of his household;
therefore he shall also be master and judge over it.
Thus came WIL-KÉR (will-choice, arbitrariness),
and just like it ruled with the men over the households,
it went and do with the kings over their state and FOLKAR (people).

every man is the father (feeder) of his household, therefore he shall be master and judge over it.
Thus arose arbitrariness, and as the men ruled over their households the kings would do over their people.

THA THA KANINGGAR ET ALSA WID BROCHT HÉDE
THAT HJA FÉDERUM THÉRA FOLKAR HÉTE
THA GVNGON HJA TO AND LÉTON BYLDON AFTER HJARA DANTNE MAKJA.
THISSA BYLDON LÉTON HJA INNA THA CHERKA STALLA
NÉST THA BYLDON THÉRA DROCHTNE
AND THI JENA THAM THÉR NAVT FAR BUGJA NILDE
WARTH OM BROCHT JEFTHA AN KÉDNE DÉN. ~

When the kings had brought it so wide (far),
that they were named FÉDERUM (feeders, fathers) of the FOLKAR (people),
then they went and had statues made of their likeness.
They had these statues placed in the churches
beside the statues of the (monstrous) idols,
and those who would not bow down to them
were either killed or put in chains.

When the kings had accomplished that, they should be called fathers of the people, they had statues of themselves made,
and erected in the churches beside the statues of the idols, and those who would not bow down to them were either killed or put in chains.

JOW ÉTHLA AND THA TWISK.LANDAR
HAVON MITH.A POPPA FORSTA OMME GVNGEN
DANA HAVON HJA THJUSE DWÉSHÉD LÉRED.
THA NAVT ALLÉNA THAT SVME JOWER MAN
HJARA SELVA SKELDICH MAKJA AN GLOR.NOMA RAW.
AK MOT IK MY VR FÉLO JOWER WIVA BIKLAGJA.

Your forefathers and the Twisklanders
have gone around with the foreign (strange) kings.
From them they have learned this folly.
But it is not only that some of your men
make themselves guilty of robbing GLOR.NOMA (glory-names, honorary titles).
I must also complain about many of your wives.

Your forefathers and the Twisklanders had intercourse with the kings, and learned these follies from them.
But it is not only that some of your men have been guilty of stealing titles, I have also much to complain of against your wives.

WERTHAT BY JO MAN FVNDEN
THAM MITH WRALDA AN ÉN LIN WILLE
THÉR WERTHAT BY JO WIVA FVNDEN
THÉR ET MITH FRYA WILLE.
VMBE THAT HJA BERN BÉRED HAVE
LÉTATH HJA HJARA SELVA MODAR HÉTA.

Like men are found among you
who want to be on one level (line) with Wralda,
also wives are found among you
who want the same with Frya.
Because they have borne BERN (children),
they have themselves be named MODAR ('Mooder', 'Mother'; an honorary title);

If there are men among you who wish to put themselves on a level with Wr-alda, there are also women who wish to consider themselves equals of Frya.
Because they have borne children, they call themselves mothers;

THA HJA VRJETTATH THAT FRYA BERN BÉRDE
SVNDER JENGONG ÉNIS MAN.
JA. NAVT ALLÉNA THAT HJA FRYA AND THA ÉRE.MODAR
FON HJARA GLOR.RIKA NOMA BIRAWA WILLE
HWÉRAN HJA TACH NAVT NAKA NE MUGE.
HJA DVATH AL.ÉN
MITH.A GLOR.NOMA FON HJARA NÉSTA.

But they forget that Frya bore children
without ingoing of a man.
Yes, not only that they want to rob Frya and the ÉRE.MODAR (honorary Mothers)
of their glory-rich names,
with whom they indeed cannot be equal,
but they do the same (all-one)
with the glory-names of their NÉSTA (nexts, neighbours).

but they forget that Frya bore children without having intercourse with a man.
Yes, they not only have desired to rob Frya and the Eeremoeders of their honourable title (with whom they cannot put themselves upon an equality),
but they do the same with the honourable titles of their fellow-creatures.

THÉR {192} SEND WIVA
THÉR HJARA SELVA LÉTATH FROWA HÉTA
AFSKÉN HJA WÉTE THAT THJUSE NOME
ALLÉNA TO FORSTA WIVA HÉRETH.
AK LÉTATH HJA HJARA TOGHATERA FAMNA HÉTA
VNTANKIS HJA WÉTE
THAT NÉNE MANGÉRT ALSA HÉTA NE MÉI.
WARA HJU TO ÉNE BURCH HÉRTH. ~

There are wives
who have themselves be named FROWA (ladies),
although they know that this name
only belongs to wives of FORSTA (firsts, chiefs, kings).
They also let their daughters be called FAMNA,
although they know
that no MANGÉRT ('man-desire', girl) may be so named
unless she belongs to a BURCH (citadel).

There are women who allow themselves to be called ladies, although they know that that only belongs to the wives of princes.
They also let their daughters be called maagden, although they know that no young girls are so called unless. they belong to a citadel.

JY ALLE WANATH
THAT JY THRVCH THAT NOMRAWA BÉTRE WERTHE
THACH JY VRJETTATH
THAT NID THÉR AN KLIWET
AND THAT ELK KWAD SINE TUCHT.RODE SÉJATH.
KÉRATH JY NAVT NE WITHER
SA SKIL TID THÉR WAXDOM AN JÉVA.
ALSA STÉRIK THAT MAN ET ENDE THÉR OF NAVT BISJA NE MÉI.

You all have the delusion
that you become better through this name-robbng,
but you forget
that jealousy clings to it,
and that every wrong sows the seed of its own discipline-rod (birch).
If you do not turn back,
then time shall give growth to it,
so strong that one cannot foresee the end there-of.

You all fancy that you are the better for this name-stealing, but you forget that jealousy clings to it, and that every wrong sows the seed of its own rod.
If you do not alter your course, in time it will grow so strong that you cannot see what will be the end.

JOW AFTER KVMANDA SKILUN THÉRMITH FÉTARATH WERTHA.
HJA NE SKILUN NAVT NE BIGRIPA
HWANAT THI SLAGA WÉI KVME.
MEN AFSKÉN JY THA FAMNA NÉNE BURGA BVWE
AND AN LOT VRLÉTE
THACH SKILUN THÉR BILIWA.

Your aftercoming (descendants) shall be flogged with it.
They will not understand
whence the strikes come.
But although you do not build BURGA (citadels) for the FAMNA (seeresses, matrons)
and leave them to fate,
there will still remain some.

Your descendants will be flogged by it, and will not know whence the stripes come.
But although you do not build citadels for the maidens and leave them to their fate, there will still remain some

HJA SKILUN FONUT WALD AND HOLUM KVMA.
HJA SKILUN JOW AFTER KVMANDE BIWISA.
THAT JY THÉR WILLENS SKILDECH AN SEND.
THAN SKIL MAN JO VRDEMA.
JOW SKINA SKILUN VRFÉRTH FON UT.A GRÉVUM RISA.

They shall come out of woods and HOLUM (holes, caves).
They shall prove your descendants
that you are willingly (deliberately) guilty of it.
Then one shall damn you.
Your SKINA (shines, ghosts) shall rise frightened out of their graves.

who will come out of woods and caves, and will prove to your descendants that you have by your disorderliness been the cause of it.
Then you will be damned. Your ghosts will rise frightened out of their graves.

HJA SKILUN WR.ALDA. HJA SKILUN FRYA AND HJRA FAMNA ANHROPA
THA NIMMAN SKIL.ER AWET AN BÉTRA NE MUGE
BIFARA THAT JOL INOP EN ORE HLAP.HRING TRÉTH.
MEN THAT SKIL ÉRIST BÉRA
AS THRÉ-THUSAND JÉR VR.HLAPEN SEND.
AFTER THISSE ÉW. ~
ENDE FON RIKA.S BRÉF.

They shall call upon Wralda, Frya, and her FAMNA (matrons, maidens),
but no man will be able to better anything about it
before the JOL enters upon another loop-ring.
But that will only happen
when three thousand years have passed
after this century.
End of Rika’s letter.

They will call upon Wr-alda, Frya, and her maidens, but they shall receive no succour before the Juul shall enter upon a pew circuit,
and that will only be three thousand years after this century. THE END OF RIKA'S LETTER.

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Quote :
THIT STAND VPPA THA WAGUM ET FRYA.S BURCH TO TEX.LAND A.SKRIWEN.
THAT STÉT AK TO STAVIA AND TO MÉDÉA.S BLIK.

[12]
Dit stond op de wanden van Fryasburg te Texland geschreven,
het staat ook te Stavia, en te Medeasblik.

This stands written upon the walls of Fryasburgh at Texland,
it also stands at Stavia and Medeasblik.
~ ~ ~

{6}
THAT WAS FRYA HIS DÉI
AND TO THÉRE STONDE WAS.T VRLÉDEN SJVGUN WARA SJVGUN JÉR.
THAT FASTA WAS ANSTALD AS FOLK.MODER NÉI FRYA.S JÉRTA.
THJU BURCH MÉDÉA.S.BLIK WAS RÉD AND EN FAM WAS KÉREN.

Het was Frya's dag
en te dier tijd was het zeven maal zeven jaar geleden,
dat Fasta was aangesteld als volksmoeder, naar Fryas begeerte.
De burg Medeasblik was gereed en een fam (vrouwe) was gekozen.

It was Frya's day,
and seven times seven years had passed
since Fasta was appointed as folkmother by Frya's desire.
The burgh Medeasblik was ready, and a fam (lady) was chosen.

NW SKOLDE FASTA THJU NÉJA FODDIK VPSTÉKA.
AND THA THAT DÉN WAS AN AJNWARDA FON THAT FOLK
THA HROP FRYA FON HIRA WAK.STARE
SA THAT ALLERAMANNALIK THAT HÉRA MACHTE.

[13]
Nu zou Fasta de nieuwe foddik (licht) opsteken,
en toen dat gedaan was in tegenwoordigheid van het volk,
toen riep Frya van hare waak-ster,
zodat iedereen het horen mocht:

Now Fasta would light the new foddik (fire),
and when that was done in the presence of the people,
Frya called from her watch-star,
so that every one could hear it:

FASTA. NIM THINRA STIFTE AND WRYT THA THINGA
THÉR IK ÉR NAVT SEDSA NE MACHTE.
FASTA DÉDE ALSA HJA BODEN WARTH.
SA SEND WY FRYA.S BARN.A VSA FORMA SKÉDNISE KÉMEN.

Fasta, neem je stift en schrijf de dingen,
die ik eerder niet zeggen mocht.
Fasta deed zoals haar geboden werd.
Zo zijn wij Frya's kinderen aan onze oudste geschiedenis gekomen.

Fasta, take your style and write the things,
that I could not say earlier.
Fasta did as she was told.
That's how we Frya's children begot our first history.

~ ~ ~ THAT IS VSA FORMA SKÉDNISE. ~ ~ ~
WR.ALDA THAM ALLÉNA GOD AND ÉVG IS.
MAKADE T.ANFANG. DANA KÉM TID.
TID WROCHTE ALLE THINGA. AK JRTHA.

~ Dit is onze oudste geschiedenis. ~
Wralda, die alleen goed en eeuwig is,
maakte de aanvang, daarna kwam tijd.
Tijd wrochte alle dingen, ook aarde.

~ That is our first history. ~
Wralda, that alone is good and eternal,
made the beginning. Then came time.
Time wrought all things, also earth.

JRTHA BARDE ALLE GARSA KRUDON AND BOMA.
ALLET DJARA KWIK AND ALLE.T ARGE KWIK.
ALHWAT GOD AND DJAR IS. BROCHT HJU BY DÉGUM
AND ALHWAT KWAD AND ARG IS. BROCHT HJU THES NACHTIS FORTH.
AFTER.ET TWILIFTE JOL.FÉRSTE BARDE HJU THRJA MANGÉRTA

Aarde baarde alle grassen, kruiden en bomen.
Alle dierbare en alle erge beesten.
Al wat goed en dier is, bracht ze bij dag,
en al wat kwaad en erg is, bracht ze des nachts voort.
Na het twaalfde jolfeest baarde ze drie meisjes:

Earth bore all grasses, herbs, and trees,
all dear and all noxious animals.
All that is good and dear she brought by day,
and all that is bad and injurious she brought forth by night.
After the twelfth yolfeast she bore three girls:

LYDA WARTH UT GLIANDE
FINDA WARTH UT HÉTA. AND
FRYA WARTH UT WARME STOF.
THA HJA BLAT KÉMON SPISDE WR.ALDA HJAM MITH SINA ADAMA.
TILTHJU THA MANNESKA AN HIM SKOLDE BVNDEN WÉSA.

Lyda werd uit gloeiende,
Finda werd uit hete, en
Frya werd uit warme stof.
Toen ze blootkwamen, spijsde Wralda hen met zijn adem,
opdat de mensen aan hem zouden gebonden wezen.

Lyda out of glowing,
Finda out of hot, and
Frya out of warm matter.
When they came bare, Wralda fed them with his breath,
so mankind would be bound to him.

RING AS HJA RIP WÉRON KRÉJON HJA FRUCHDA AND NOCHTA ANDA DRAMA.
WR.ALDA.S OD TRAD TO RA BINNA.
AND NW BARDON EK TWILIF SVNA AND TWILIF TOGETHERA.
EK JOL.TID TWÉN.
THÉROF SEND ALLE MANNESKA KÉMEN.

Zodra ze rijp waren, kregen zij vreugde en genot ('vruchten en noten') in de dromen.
Wralda's od (?) trad tot hen binnen.
En nu baarden zij elk twaalf zonen en twaalf dochters,
elke joltijd een tweeling.
Daarvan zijn alle mensen gekomen.

As soon as they were ripe they got dreams of pleasure and delight ('fruits and nuts').
Wralda's od (?) came into them.
And now they each bore twelve sons and twelve daughters,
each yoltime twins.
Thereof all mankind has come.

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VIDKING = SEEKING and SEAKING

THER WITKÉNING. THÀT IS SÉKÉNING [045/17]

THE COLOR WHITE

weiß - german
white - english
wit - dutch
vit - swedish
hvit - norwegian
hvid - danish

THE VERB TO WIT (KNOW)

wit - english (I wit)
wissen - german (ich weiß)
weten - dutch (ik weet)
vet - swedish, norwegian (jag/jeg vet)
vita - icelandic (ég veit)
videre - latin = to see (video)

ADJECTIVE WISE

wise - english
weise - german
wijs - dutch
vis - swedish, norwegian, danish, icelandic

WATER AND THE ADJECTIVE WET

water, wet - english
water, nat - dutch
wasser, naß - german
vand, våd - danish
vann, våt - norwegian
vatten, våt - swedish
vatn, votur - icelandic

THE NOUN SEA

sea - english
zee - dutch
see - german
sø - danish
sjø - norwegian
sjö - swedish
sjó - icelandic

THE VERB TO SEE

see - english
zien - dutch
sehen - german
se - danish, swedish, norwegian
sjá - icelandic

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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Sun Feb 22, 2015 2:34 pm

Change the words; you will not change the substance, its relationship with the world, with its environment and specifically, the people refering to/with such - in their language.
Negro(id), Black, African-American, Afro-American, Coloured, Dark, Chocolate Bunny...

Why is it that in Dutch, the word kaffer means nigger; why is it that this European people took this word from the Arabic word kaffir, which means disbeliever (not really, but that it is known for).
And why did they use this word in a degrading way to refer to all negroes..
Maybe because the Berbers and Arabs refered to them as such without discrimination regarding their belief..

Why is it that abd means slave, but also negroe - in Arabic.
Why is it that Ibn Khaldun refered to the Zanj as belonging to the world of animal consciousness..

Why is it that in the Georgian language they are refered to as without Anima?
In the Georgian language you have two ways in indicating that I/ you/ (s)he etc., have something / someone; such as a pet, a friend, a father, a plant - with Anima.
And objects, thus not alive - are refered to with slightly difference in pronunciation.
But of all the living organisms, plants and beings - on this planet; why is it that the zangi (similarity with the Arabic word) are refered to as soulless..
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Mon Jun 15, 2015 8:11 am

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Of course the Western languages are in decline as an expressive means with the demographic and mongrel replacement and the dumbing down of the averages of our own people - language like culture are organic; the emotional, intellectual, creative, historic and ideological expression of a volk. Hence dem dumb fukcin talkin and shieet of dem niggers is an expression related to their genetic makeup, Ebonics in Dutch or English, in any non nignog language which they parasitcally use and degrade, the expression will degenerate from interactions such as going out, having good conversations, discussions, good laughs, talking about your experiences etc., to 'muh dick', 'dem bieetches be ridin muh dick, know ima sayin' - it is their exposure of mind capacity.
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Tue Jul 21, 2015 11:52 am

The entrapment of language; as the language refers to phenomena not only as ‘what is present’ but also through interpretation in accordance to ideological pillars, in these Modern times disconnected from actual processes and essential re-presentations.

In regards to understanding, the freedom of language.
How does one learn a language; through repeating, mimicking, parroting, memorizing.
So far it is knowing, copy-pasting basic knowledge or even the more complex references through memorizing the already interpreted information.
Understanding the language is still to be in touch with the copy-pasting mechanism, as it is the fundament of potential understanding. The one who has quality in mind can on his own connect the words to phenomenal processes and connect different substantial matters with own interpretations and experiences, building from a past concept a cumulative understanding which he can on his turn pass on to potential ‘’pupils’’ who will continue the understanding-legacy on their turn, which most people will only knowingly-understand as static-abstractions correlated to current interpretation, never outgrowing the feeding tube, never having learned to digest, or simply incapable to do so.

I see a red flower of an particular specie and call it a rose, as the many did before me, as I have learned to identify it as such though not with enough consciousness yet to distinct different species of roses from each other. Am I a ‘’parrot’’, or simply refer to it for what it essentially is. Can I use this referential word in self-creating expressionism, linguistic art, use it as an example to explain certain subjects, then it proves that I understand it exceeding the static-definition as a mere reference.
Who are the others who can merely parrot ‘’that is a rose’’, ‘’roses are red and violets are..’’, that is their impotent ‘’understanding’’ of words, always a copy-paste parrot without substance, Moderns they are, or the indoctrinated.
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Tue Jul 21, 2015 12:02 pm

Shakespear wrote:
What's in a name? that which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet;

A name, a word, refers to an activity, (inter)activity, a behaviour.
If it does not, it is an abstraction with no reference....like equality, or how Moderns define "love" or "humanity".

If the word refers back to a human abstraction with no reference to anything outside the mind, and if acts as a tool to dismiss the world outside the mind, the objective world, then the mind is infected by Nihilism...it is thoroughly modern.

Reclaim the words these dis-ease fucks have hijacked. Reconnect them, when they've been detached, or dismiss them when they cannot be attached to anything outside human minds.
A self-cleansing.
Disarm these lepers of their only weapon...words with no meaning.


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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Fri Sep 25, 2015 5:56 pm

Just a possible thought.

There are similar vocal-expressions in many languages relating to common references; in this case mother/father , mom(my) /dad(dy), mama / pappa.
A baby still unable to utter its first words often says 'mammmmmuuu', and people who eat something which they find very tasteful say 'mmh, it is good'; if one is thinking or in doubt sometimes they feel the need to express this through sound: ''uhmmm''.

Thus, maybe the sound of the baby preceeds the reference - and the adult / parent hears in this mumbling of sounds (limited to mmm/aa/uu/ee) a reference, an identity-word refering to the mother in Western consciousness and values; but in Georgian 'mama' means what we call in the West 'pappa' - it is just about how they integrated this mumbling into a reference word, father or mother in this case.

The most primal words in relationship to birth, life, death, needs have their origin in the sound that the body makes or the emotions that express without actual learned words, the sounds are integrated into words however they are interpreted / heard.
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Mon Nov 02, 2015 8:24 pm

Oor / oren: Ear(s)
Oorlog: War
Deel / delen: Sharing, separating, part(s), divide, areas
Oordeel / oordelen: Judging, verdict, estimation
Beoordeel / beoordelen: Judging, rating, assess
Veroordeel / veroordelen: Judge, condemn, convicting
Verdeel / verdelen: Separating, sharing, dividing, distribute.

Notice how anything to do with 'judging' is literally about 'separating', discrimination, in Dutch language, when you start using words as they are given to you, you will not understand the processes behind it and the connections thus it becomes more abstract, detached from how they were used by other generations. To judge is to separate / divide.

Waarderen: Appreciate
Waarde (oordeel): Value (judgement)
Waardevol: Valueable
Waardigheid: Dignity
Waarheid: Truth / honesty
Waar: Real / truth
Waardig: Dignified, worthy, deserving
Zwaar: Heavy (not sure if I can put this among those though)


Wegen: To weigh / roads
Bewegen: moving

To weigh what road to take..


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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Mon Nov 02, 2015 8:34 pm

To her who weighs upon rhythm
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Schoon-geheid gij zijt, waardig jouw oordeel,
Te kunnen verdelen patroon van patroon,
Niet de dans zonder geest maar het ritme als leven,
Dat is jouw waardigheid te kunnen beoordelen -
Het ritme te waarderen, zwaarder te wegen boven doof bewegen;
Mij te veroordelen evenzo in waardigheid te betuigen,
Van patroon naar patroon het ritme niet volgen maar dansen en leven.

Beautiful as clarity you are, of value your judgement,
To can separate pattern from pattern,
Not the dance without soul but the rhythm as life,
That is you dignity to be able to judge –
To esteem rhythm, weighing it more heavily above mute moving;
To sentence me likewise to judgingly profess in dignity,
From pattern to pattern not following the rhythm but to dance and live.
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Sun Nov 08, 2015 5:48 pm

Beyond Good and Evil: 268 wrote:
Ultimately, what does it mean to be ignoble? - Words are sound signals for ideas, but ideas are more or less firm image signs for sensations which return frequently and occur together, for groups of sensations. To understand each other, it is not yet sufficient that people use the same words; they must use the same words also for the same form of inner experiences; ultimately they must hold their experience in common with each other. That's why human beings belonging to a single people understand each other better among themselves than associations of different peoples, even when they themselves use the same language; or rather, when human beings have lived together for a long time under similar conditions (climate, soil, danger, needs, work), then something arises out of that which "understands itself," a people. In all souls, a similar number of frequently repeating experiences have won the upper hand over those which come more rarely; people understand each other on the basis of the former, quickly and with ever-increasing speed - the history of language is the history of a process of abbreviation. On the basis of this rapid understanding, people bind with one another, closely and with ever-increasing closeness. The greater the danger, the greater the need quickly and easily to come to agreement over what needs to be done; not to misunderstand each other when in danger is what people simply cannot do without in their interactions. With every friendship or love affair people still make this test: nothing of that sort lasts as soon as people reach the point where, with the same words, one of the two feels, means, senses, wishes, or fears something different from the other one. (The fear of the "eternal misunderstanding": that is the benevolent genius which so often prevents people of different sexes from over-hasty unions, to which their senses and hearts urge them - and not some Schopenhauerish "genius of the species"!-). Which groups of sensations within the soul wake up most rapidly, seize the word, give the order - that decides about the whole rank ordering of its values, that finally determines its tables of goods. The assessments of value in a man reveal something about the structure of his soul and where it looks for its conditions of life, its essential needs. Now, assume that need has always brought together only such people as could indicate with similar signs similar needs, similar experiences, then it would generally turn out that the easy ability to communicate need, that is, in the last analysis, familiarity with only average and common experiences, must have been the most powerful of all the forces which have so far determined things among human beings. People who are more similar and more ordinary were and always have been at an advantage; the more exceptional, more refined, rarer, and more difficult to understand easily remain isolated; in their isolation they are subject to accidents and rarely propagate themselves. People have to summon up huge counter-forces to cross this natural, all-too-natural progressus in simile [advance into similarity], the further training of human beings into what's similar, ordinary, average, herd-like - into what's common.
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Mon Nov 23, 2015 4:50 pm

Gemeen = Mean(ly), vulgar, nasty, vile, common(ly);
Derived from: Algemeen = Common, general, universal, popular, public

To consciously relate mean / nasty behaviour to common circumstances, or rather - people.

Gemeenschap = community, intercourse.

Nobility is for the few only.
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Wed Dec 30, 2015 8:06 am

G+ wrote:
The recent research on anthropology reveals the fact the European ancestors were the only human beings domesticated the wolf and developed the canine species. Canines enabled the first Homo Sapiens, Europeans to develop the advanced language form, since living with the canines modified our cranial structure, down sizing our olfactory system and increased the size of our oral cavity which made us talk language.
Asians, had never been friends of canines, so their language is very primitive. Asians cannot pronounce L, R, F, St, Fr, Gr, Kr, nt,,, and hundreds more,,,





As loyal as a dog..., only Whites can be because we self-projected desired traits upon wolfs to synchronize their behaviour with that of ours'. A nigger can't even project a self, it is just a nigger bird in a flock of niggers.

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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Tue Jan 12, 2016 7:43 pm

G+ wrote:
In the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál, Odin (disguised as Grímnir) provides young Agnarr with information about Odin's companions:

"Hugin and Munin both, each day set forth to fly over the spacious earth.
For Hugin I fear lest he come not home. But for Munin my care is more."

Re-member-ing (Memory no static possession but verb) as re-connecting
back Home, to the Source (inborn Gnosis). The dread, that if we lose the active ('daily') capacity to reconnect, we may not find the way back Home. Who said this wisdom is not "alive"?
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Sun Feb 21, 2016 6:30 pm

Wees, as in ''wees bedacht'', = be, ''be cautious / wary / prepared''
Wees = orphan / be / pointed / indicated
Geweest = (have) been / was

''Hij is er geweest'' = He has been there (past fulfilled action) / He will die (is happening / will happen soon)

To have been somewhere already and to die seemingly correlate to an understanding of resurrection into death.
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Sat Mar 05, 2016 10:41 am

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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Sat Mar 05, 2016 10:46 am

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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Sun Mar 13, 2016 4:08 pm

German: Spät = (Too) Late / End
Dutch: Spijt = Regret / Repentance

The pronouncation is more similar than the written grammar.
The root going into different branches of languages and dialects.
To have regret Always relates to 'being too late' (to have realized / to take [another] action, to be [there]).
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Fri Apr 15, 2016 12:58 pm

Ukrainian: A mixture of its own, Polish and Russian.
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Fri Apr 15, 2016 1:02 pm

(Ge)Heel = Wholesome, wholly, very, complete
Helen = Healing, recovering
Huid = Skin
Heelhuids = Unscathed, (to return in) one piece (wholly skinned)

Health, Heal, Wholesomeness; it all relates to one another.
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Thu May 12, 2016 6:41 pm

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"Review

Daniel Heller-Roazen has written a magical and learned story of language. Here the life and death and never-ending mutability of languages, the babbling lost in the interstices of speech, the history of typographical marks, the mysteries of animal sounds and speech disorders, forgotten tongues and mother tongues, linguistic paradoxes and tragedies all acquire a brilliant and Ovidian intensity.

(Susan Stewart, author of Columbarium and Poetry and the Fate of the Senses)

If there ever was a book like this one, I cannot remember it. Heller-Roazen's gorgeous prose strings together beads of dazzling example into a necklace of allusion. When have such important philosophical and philological arguments about the nature of language and such trenchant critiques been made with such graceful learning? With each turn of the page we pass from amnesia to anamnesis and back again. When we come to the end we awaken, like Circe's pigs, filled with regret that that adventure is over, but filled with a new wonder about human language, from its most humble letters to the heights of poetry. If you read this book, you will not easily forget it.

(David Nirenberg, author of Communities of Violence: Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages)

Reading Daniel Heller-Roazen's book is an extraordinary intellectual adventure. Vertiginous landscapes of learning open up at every moment, but the writing never loses its aphoristic edge. Much is said and even more is suggested. This book rebuilds whole worlds from the ravages of loss and forgetting, and also discreetly teaches us that there are no worlds that loss and forgetting do not beset.

(Michael Wood, author of The Road to Delphi)

Echolalias is a rare find a book about language where the language itself steers a course between the scholarly and the poetic. Difficult, erudite, and full of luminous parables, it is worth multiple readings.

(nth position)

In short, I highly recommend Echolalias to the writer, the codeworker, the critic, anyone who works with language, who participates in the assumptions of language. It is brilliantly written, moves subtlety between cases, anecdotes, and cultural histories -- through theoretical considerations -- while remaining close to the bone.

(Alan Sondheim, American Book Review)


Minus the pro-semitic, pro-Exiled's, pro-'Other', post-modern aim of the book, the reviews still hold.

Some sample chapters, for those interested in the cultural history of linguistics:

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*


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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Thu May 12, 2016 6:42 pm

[Daniel Roazen, Echolalias]

The Phantom 'H':


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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*
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PostSubject: x Thu May 12, 2016 7:24 pm

About the H reminds me of my Arabic course some years ago; the teacher was like, he said he repeated common Islamic theology knowledge, that ''ه is the letter of Allah, the letter of the heart, whenever you say Allah you speak through your heart, you have to exhale from the depth of your lungs''.

Quote :
Also, pronouncing the last letter which is the letter (H) makes a contact between the lungs & the heart & in turn this contact controls the heartbeat.

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Though today it reminds me more of
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Thu May 12, 2016 8:42 pm

As with the attack on all things historical, the assualt on Historical Linguistics: Debunking Turkish origins.


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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Sun May 15, 2016 6:31 pm

Krijg = War(fare), arms / (to) get, getting, receive
Krijgen = Getting, gain, receiving
Krijger  / krijgsman = Warrior, ''warman''
Krijgsmacht = Armed forced, legion
Krijgstucht = ''Military'' discipline
Krijgshaftig (German 'Kriegerisch') = Martial, warlike

Kreeg = Received, got
Krieg (German) = War(fare)
Krieger (German) = Warrior

That Modern German and Dutch have got a common recent ancestral language source from which they branched off as we have them today, we can note that to 'receive', 'gain', 'to get, 'got', 'taken' relates to the 'art of war' and the warrior himself as the one with the will (to gain), though not necessarily I would say relating to material goods, but also to receive inflicted wounds next to his potential of getting / taking honour.


Quote :
Krij-gen
afkomstig van:
Middelnederlands: crigen (oorlog voeren)
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''Middle-Dutch: 'Crigen' (waging war)'', pronunciation the same as German 'kriegen' (obtaining, getting, receiving).
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Wed May 18, 2016 3:07 pm

Dutch / German: (Be)minne = (courtly) Love / Loving / Caressing / Friendship
Minnezanger = Troubadour in Netherlands and Germany merely singing about (forbidden / secret) love.
Minnaar = (Secret) Lover
Minzaam = Friendly, lovingly, kind
Mein (Ge), Mijn (NL), Mine (En) = Reference to be-longing, desire, possessing.
Present day Dutch, affection due to mathematical awareness, 'minneN'= Minuses / negative.

Quote :
min 1 zn. ‘liefde’
Onl. minna ‘liefde’ in mich okkeret mines sponsi minnon gelusted ‘mij behaagt slechts de liefde van mijn minnaar’ [ca. 1100; Will.]; mnl. minne ‘liefde’ [1200; VMNW], min ‘id.’ [1442; MNW].
Os. minnia; ohd. minna (nhd. Minne); ofri. minne ‘liefde’; < pgm. *minjō- ‘liefde’. Hierbij horen de werkwoordsafleidingen: onl. minnon (zie onder); os. minnion (mnd. minnen); ohd. minnōn (nhd. minnen); ofri. minnia (nfri. minne); alle ‘liefhebben’; < pgm. *minjōn-.
Wrsch. verwant met: Oudiers mīan ‘verlangen, wens’ en Welsh mwyn ‘vreugde’; < pie. *mein-, *min- ‘begeren’ (IEW 711-712). In de Germaanse talen kan ook sprake zijn van invloed van de wortel pie. *men- ‘denken’, zie → manen 2, vergelijk got. gaminþi ‘herinnering’ en on. minni ‘id.’ (nzw. minne). Dat zou kloppen met de mnl. betekenis minne ‘aandenken’.
♦ minnen ww. ‘liefhebben’. Onl. minnon ‘id.’ in thia minnunt namon sinan ‘die zijn naam liefhebben’ [10e eeuw; W.Ps.]; mnl. minnen ‘liefhebben, zeer gesteld zijn op’ in minnedi dien hertoge iet ‘als je ook maar enigszins van de hertog houdt’ [1220-40; VMNW], Die magt die alle dogde minde ‘de maagd die zeer gesteld was op alle deugden’ [1265-70; VMNW], ook ‘beslapen’ in alsi wart gewaer, dat hise woude minnen ‘toen zij bemerkte dat hij haar wilde beslapen’ [1415-35; MNW]. Afleiding van min. Tegenwoordig veelal vervangen door → beminnen. ♦ minnaar zn. ‘iemand die mint, aanbidder’. Mnl. minnere ‘id.’ [1240; Bern.], minnare ‘id.’ [1300-50; MNW-R]. Afleiding van minnen met het achtervoegsel → -aar. ♦ minzaam bn. ‘vriendelijk; welwillend tegenover minderen’. Mnl. minsam ‘liefderijk’ in dat minsam ... anscyn ‘het lieflijk gelaat’ [1348; MNW] en ‘vriendelijk’ (bw.), zoals in hi moet in allen sijn minsame ‘hij moet in alles vriendelijk zijn’ [1350-1400; MNW]; nnl. minzaam ook ‘welwillend tegenover minderen’ in De minzaame Meester zyner Bedienden [1785; iWNT]. Afleiding van min met het achtervoegsel → -zaam.

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From the source, closely related to old-Irish 'Mïan' (desire, wish), Welsh 'Mwyn' (rejoice).
PIO roots relating to remembrance, thinking and seeing.




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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Wed Jun 01, 2016 5:25 pm

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Josef Holeček historian (1853 Stožice – 1929 Praha) says: The “Serb” name was taken after mid-century, and there isn’t about the Serbian ethnicity, that since the twentieth century the religious group of the Balkan Orthodox formed the “Serb” name for the ethnicity that today is called Serb.
Stojan Novakovic (1842-1915): “There is no doubt that the Orthodox’s are called “Serbs” when the Serbian ethnicity did not even exist “(“Prvi osnovi Slovenske književnosti među balkanskim Slovenima”, Belgrade 1893, Stojan Novakovic).Russian diplomat Giljferding: “Until the mid-nineteenth century is noticed that all the nations who had Orthodox religion were called Serbs”. Author, Ljubomir Nenadoviç: “In 1834 it was him who forced Njegos that make up a Serbian ethnicity”.So the name “Serb” was a behalf for the Orthodox and not a key to determinate an ethnicity, we have thousands of historical data for this, wrote Josef Holeček.” To go further “Serv” in Byzantine language is a word that means “slave” “tzerboulianous” means those who dress poor. Serbs were so called because they were slaves of the Byzantine Empire. And this is another thesis for the accuracy of which, I have no doubt. Serbia means slave, servant, and lackey. Their name itself shows that they are not a natural ethnicity, but believers that gathered around a particular faith.

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In the Balkans, a common slur for Serbs is Vlach (vlajo in their Slavic languages). Many historians believe that many Serbs are Slavified Vlachs, and this survivied through history.
For Hungarians, Serbs were historically known as Rascians (Rácok), a geographical region of South Serbia. Today Serbs consider this term offensive.


Quote :
Why are the South Slavic languages all the same? Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia have been separate entities much longer than for example, the Netherlands independent from HRE. But Dutch is a distinct language.

''(Rumun/Ruman) , historically it means Serf/Slave.''
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Sun Jun 05, 2016 8:36 am

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You will assist the Principle Investigator to implement and conduct experiments within an interdisciplinary team of psychologists, linguists and anthropologists that investigates how speakers of different languages associate sounds to space. Previous research has shown that languages differ in their metaphors for sound, specifically pitch. While English and Dutch speakers use high and low to refer to pitch, Turkish and Farsi speakers use thin and thick. These different ways of talking about pitch also seem to influence the way people think about sounds too. Interestingly infants seem to be sensitive to both types of cross-modal associations, even before they learn language. This project investigates the developmental trajectory of these sorts of cross-modal associations in adults speaking different languages and children of different ages. You will be expected to be an active member of this international research group, by participating in lab meetings and colloquia.
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PostSubject: Re: Language parsing Fri Jan 06, 2017 5:42 pm

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"ἐδιζησάμην ἐμεωυτόν." [Heraclitus]

"All that exists is just and unjust and equally justified in both." [Aeschylus, Prometheus]

"The history of everyday is constituted by our habits. ... How have you lived today?" [N.]

*Become clean, my friends.*
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